African-based Pidgins and Creoles (excl. Arabic and
1 : Pidgin Bulu-Ewondo (Pidgin A70 or bulu
bediliva) is a ewondo-based pidgin spoken in Cameroon.
2 : Asian Swahili (Kenya, Uganda) may be
intelligible with standard Kiswahili. Cutchi-Swahili and Asian Swahili may not be the same. Used
by Asians in communicating with non-English speaking Africans and other Asians
who share no other common language.
3 : Bangala (Congo-Kinshasa)
is same as Lingala but in contact with Bangala language. As Lingala spread west
and south, its vocabulary was replaced more and more by tribal and regional
languages, and it became more of an
interlanguage (a language that is a mix of two or more languages) and was
classified as a separate language - Bangala. The vocabulary of Bangala varies
depending on the first language of the speakers. Around the 1980s, with the
popularity and increased availability of Lingala in modern music, young people
in large villages and towns began adopting Lingala so much that their Bangala is
becoming more of a dialect than a separate language.
4 : Chikabanga, Cikabanga is the name sometimes used for the variant of the
lingua franca of Southern Africa that is peculiar to Zambia and leans
heavily on Chi-Wemba.
5 : Chikunda (Lower Zambezi) is pidgin
based on Kunda language (more information needed)
is a language spoken primarily in Zimbabwe and Zambia,
where it is called 'Cikabanga'.
Some may describe it as a
language, blending elements of the Ndebele,
7 : Cutchi-Swahili is a Swahili-based
creole language spoken primarily by Gujarati muslim immigrants in Kenya and
8 : Fanagalo or Fanakalo
(Kitchen Kafir) is a
Pidgin (simplified language)
based on the
Afrikaans languages. It is used as a
lingua franca, mainly in the gold, diamond, coal and copper mining
industries in South Africa.
9 : Gengele is reported to be a
creole based on Lega-Shabunda, Kusu, and other languages in Congo-Kinshasa.
: Gibanawa, Jega
is a contact language and a Hausa-based pidgin language spoken as a
second-language in Nigeria.
11 : Iscamtho has very strong
leanings towards Zulu and Sotho : both of these influence the lexical base of
Iscamtho even though there are social and linguistic differences between them.
Iscamtho also forms a very important marker of urban identity, particularly a
Soweto identity which reflects a number of social phenomena. (Urban South Africa).
: Jo, Sprache des
Nixenkultbundes am Kamerunberg ou Esquisse de la langue de
l'association culturelle des nymphes au bord du Mont-Cameroun. (more information
13 : Kihindi ('Indian
language'), the Swahili pidgin variety
spoken by a large segment of the Indian population in up-country Kenya.
is a Swahili-based creole language spoken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Many variations of Swahili are spoken in the country but the major one is Kingwana, sometimes called Copperbelt Swahili especially in the Katanga area.
is a widely used lingua franca in Central Africa. It is a creole language
Kikongo, a family of closely related
Bantu languages (some of which are not mutually intelligible). It is an official
language in Congo-Kinshasa.
16 : Lingala or Bangala is a
language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic
of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and a large part of the Republic of the Congo
(Congo-Brazzaville), as well as to some degree in Angola and the
Central African Republic. Lingala has many borrowings from
French, even in its basic vocabulary. The language also contains some
: Munukutuba (Commercial Kikongo)
or Kituba is a widely used lingua franca in Central Africa. It is a creole language
Kikongo, a family of closely related
Bantu languages (some of which are not mutually intelligible). It is an official
language in Congo-Brazzaville.
18 : Pidgin Fula, Koine Fula, (Bilkiire,
Kambariire are pejorative terms) is a fulani-based Pidgin in North Cameroon and
has preserved some suppletive plurals from Fula, even though the system of
nominal agreement of the lexifier has been eliminated.
19 : Pidgin Hausa, Barikanci is a Pidgin language based on
Hausa, spoken in the Nigeria in the Army.
Pretoria) is sotho-based pidgin and widely used in the township in
Pretoria (South Africa), comprising a mixture of Northern Sotho dialects.
: Pretoria-Tsonga is Tsonga-based pidgin and widely used in the township in
Pretoria (South Africa)
22 : Runyakitara (Uganda) is a recent
standardized form (dating to the early 1990s) of four linguistically
closely-related languages of western
Nyoro or Runyoro,
Chiga or Rukiga,
Nyankore or Runyankole,
Tooro or Rutooro. It might be considered a
koine of the abovementioned tongues.
23 : Sango (also spelled Sangho)
is an Ubangi-based pidgin and the primary language spoken in the
Central African Republic. Sango is a
vehicular language, based on the language of the Sango tribe, belonging to
the Ngbandi language cluster (including Ngbandi and Yakoma), with many French
words. Some linguists, following William J. Samarin, classify it as a
Ngbandi-based Creole; other linguists, however (eg Marcel Diki-Kidiri,
Charles H. Morrill) reject this classification, saying that changes in Sango
structures (both internally and externally) can be explained quite well without
a creolization process.
Shaba/Katanga/Lubumbashi Swahili is a Swahili-based creole language
spoken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
: Sheng is a
language, originating in Nairobi,
influenced by the many languages spoken there.
: Town Bemba is a Bemba-based
pidgin with heavy codeswitching with English and neighboring Bantu languages in
Zambia. Town Bemba
is a widely used lingua franca in urban, not rural areas, and it has higher
social status than other languages except English. Bemba is recognized for educational and administrative purposes.
27 : Tshiluba pidgin or Pidgin Chiluba
is a from the Tshiluba language “Tshiluba” of the Republic of the Congo. Tshiluba (also called Luba-Kasai and Luba-Lulua)
is a Bantu language, where it is a national language. Based on Luba-Kasai, Luba-Katanga with some Swahili and French.
28 : Wolof Pidgin is a Pidgin language based on
Wolof, spoken in the Gambia.
Extinct Creoles and Pidgins :
 KiKAR, Kikeya is a Swahili variety
in. Kenya's colonial army with a lexical borrowing of military
terminology. KiKAR, also known as Kikeya, initially
emerged as nonstandard Swahili, laden with substrate influences of
African languages, spoken by soldiers recruited from diverse
 Kisetla was a pidgin language based
on Swahili, formerly used for communication between Europeans and Africans.
European settlers in the Kenyan highlands used this variety called
Kisetla with their servants or farm laborers
 Shalambombo is a Nguni-based
language that developed in the prisons during the. Thirties and used by a
criminal gang network in Johannesburg (South Africa).
Engsh (Nairobi) is more an English-based Pidgin than an African-based Pidgins and Creoles
Arabic-based Pidgins and Creoles
1 : Ethiopian
Pidgin Arabic (more information needed)
2 : Ghous Moroccan secret language (more information needed)
3 : Galgaliya is an Arabic-based Pidgin
used by the kalamafi tribe in northeastern Nigeria
4 : Juba Arabic is an Arabic-based
Creole, spoken mainly in Equatoria Province in Southern Sudan
5 : Nubi language (also called Ki-Nubi) is a
Creole language spoken in Uganda around Bombo,
and in Kenya around
Kibera, by the descendants of
Sudanese soldiers who were settled there by the
British colonial administration.
6 : Tekrur, Babalia Creole Arabic is a
Shuwa Arabic-based Creole spoken in 23 villages of the Chari-Baguirmi
Prefecture in southwestern Chad; the substrate language was
Extinct languages :
Arwi or Arabic-Tamil was used extensively by the Muslim
minority of Tamil Nadu state of India and Sri Lanka. As a spoken
language it is extinct, though a few
madrasas still teach the basics of the language as part of their
Maridi Arabic's location is unknown. The paragraph after it is a condensed version of a passage elsewhere in
al-Bakri describing the Lamtūna tribe of Mauritania, so Thomason and Elgibali suggest that it was spoken in Mauritania; however,
Owens notes that both the phonetics of the text and the attribution to a person from Aswan (not to mention the possible presence of a
Nilo-Saharan word) suggest a location somewhere in modern-day Sudan.
Turku is a name (no longer used locally) for an Arabic pidgin spoken pidgin spoken east of Lake Chad and in
Dutch-based Pidgins and Creoles
1 : Afrikaans (Taal Dutch or Cape Dutch) is an
Indo-European language, derived from
Dutch and thus classified as
West Germanic. It is mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia, with smaller
numbers of speakers living in Botswana. Afrikaans and Dutch are largely mutually
Afrikaans (Northern Cape dialect),
Afrikaans (Western Cape dialect),
Afrikaans (Eastern Cape dialect) )
2 : Berbice Dutch Creole is
Dutch-based Creole language of Guyana. It has a
partly based on a dialect of the West African language of
3 : Petjo, also known as Petjoh, Petjok, Pecok, is a Dutch-based
language that originated among the
people of mixed Dutch and Indonesian ancestry in Indonesia. The language has
influences from Dutch,
Betawi. Its speakers presently live mostly in Indonesia and the Netherlands.
The language is expected to become extinct by the end of the 21st century.
Hottentot Pidgin Dutch
is an extinct Dutch-based creole language and refers to
an English-lexifier pidgin spoken by (among others) Khoikhoin
(Hottentots) settled in the Western Cape area. The KhoiKhoi herded
cattle and sheep and had a social structure completely different from
that of the Bushmen. There was, however, a lot of interaction between
the two groups, so much so that linguists later classed both their
languages as “Khoisan”. The KhoiKhoi were later followed by the first
influx of black people from the north.
also known by the pejorative name Krontjong, was a Dutch-based
creole language spoken on Java, Indonesia. The name Javindo is a
portmanteau of Java and Indo, the Dutch word for a
person of mixed Indonesian and Dutch descent. It should not be
Petjo, a different Dutch- and Malay-based creole also spoken in
Jersey Dutch was a variant of the Dutch language
spoken in and around Bergen and Passaic counties in New Jersey from the
late 1600s until the early 20th century. It may have been a partial
creole language based on Zeelandic and West Flemish Dutch dialects with
English and possibly some elements of Lenape. It was spoken by the
descendants of Dutch settlers to New Jersey and by the mixed race people
known as the Ramapough Mountain Indians. It was sometimes called Neger
Mohawk Dutch is a now extinct Dutch-based creole
language mainly spoken during the 17th century west of Albany, New York,
by the Dutch colonists who mixed with the local population from the
Negerhollands (Negrodutch) is a Dutch-based creole
language that was once spoken in the Danish West Indies, now known as
the U.S. Virgin Islands. Dutch is its superstrate language with Danish,
English, French, Spanish, and African elements incorporated.
Notwithstanding its name, Negerhollands draws primarily from the
Zeelandic rather than the Hollandic dialect.
Skepi Creole Dutch is an extinct Dutch-based
creole language of Guyana, spoken in the region of Essequibo. It was not
mutually intelligible with Berbice Creole Dutch, also spoken in Guyana.
This language has been classified as extinct since 1998.
Afrikaans-based Pidgins and Creoles
1 : Oorlams (also : Oorlands, Oorlans) is a dialect of
Afrikaans spoken in the Republic of South Africa. It is considered an
Creole language by some observers whereas most Oorlammers themselves would
describe their language as being a dialect of Afrikaans proper.
Oorlams has many elements from
2 : Tsotsitaal, Vlytaal, Vlaaitaal, Flaaitaal
might sound like a variety of Afrikaans; but such a conclusion would
overlook its robust Bantu language texture. However, it draws its
lexical base from Afrikaans. It is a variety of mixed languages mainly spoken
in the townships of Gauteng province, such as Soweto, but also in other
agglomerations all over South Africa. Tsotsi is a Sesotho slang word for
a "thug" or "robber" (possibly from the verb "ho tsotsa" "to sharpen" — whose
meaning has been modified in modern times to include "to con"; or from the
tsetse fly, as the language was first known as Flytaal, although "flaai" also
means cool or street smart) and taal is the Afrikaans word
for "language". A tsotsitaal is built over the grammar of one or several
languages, in which terms from other languages or specific terms created by the
community of speakers are added. It is a permanent work of language-mix,
language-switch, and terms-coining.
1 : Cameroonian Pidgin English is a linguistic
entity of Cameroon. It is also known as Kamtok (from 'Cameroon-talk'). Five
varieties are currently recognised : Grafi Kamtok, francophone Kamtok, Limbe
Kamtok, Bororo Kamtok and liturgical Kamtok. About 5% of Cameroonians are native speakers of the language, while an
estimated 50% of the population speak it in some form.
2 : Ghanaian Pidgin English is descended from a trade language
developed by West African merchants in the 17th and 18th centuries to
communicate with each other and with English slave, ivory, and gold
traders. Nowadays, educated, English-speaking Ghanaians frown upon
Pidgin, believing it to be an "inferior" form of "true" or "educated"
English. Children are often forbidden to speak Pidgin, and teachers
usually try to root it out of their students. Nevertheless, Pidgin
survives in mixed-tribe schools and among lower-class people with less
access to formal English training, because Ghana is home to several
different tribes with mutually uninteligible languages and many times
Pidgin is the only way to communicate with someone.
3 : Liberian Interior Pidgin English is the speech of rubber
tappersand soldiers whose first language is Mande language
4 : Madras Tamil
Pidgin English or Madras
bashai is a type of mixed language spoken in the city of Chennai,
India (previously known as Madras). It is a loose polyglot blend of
Tamil and English, with loanwords from Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Hindi
and Urdu. The term therefore is Tamil for Madras language Recently it
has become known as Tanglish, as opposed to Hinglish, of which it is
sometimes referred to as a dialect. However, while Hinglish and Tanglish
are both dialects of English, Tanglish cannot be considered a dialect of
Hinglish because, unlike Punglish (Punjabi-English) the Indian parts of
these dialects are not related - Tamil, unlike Hindi, is not in the
Indo-European language group.
5 : Nauru Chinese Pidgin English is currently spoken in Nauru.
6 : Nigerian Pidgin English is Nigerian Pidgin is an English-based
Pidgin or Creole language spoken as a kind of lingua franca across
Nigeria that is referred to simply as "Pidgin", "Broken English" or "Brokan".
Nigerian Pidgin English was greatly influenced by the Saro or Krios who
infused words like "na" into Nigerian Pidgin. It is often not considered
a Creole language since most speakers are not native speakers, although
many children do learn it early. Nonetheless it can be spoken as a
Pidgin, a Creole, or a decreolised acrolect by different speakers, who
may switch between these forms depending on the social setting. Its
superstrate is English with Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo as the main substrate
languages. Ihemere (2006) reports that Nigerian Pidgin is the native
language of approximately 3 to 5 million people and is a second language
for at least another 75 million. Variations of Pidgin are also spoken
across West Africa, in countries such as Ghana, and Cameroon.
7 : Pijin (Solomon Islands
or Neo-Solomonic) is also referred to as Kanaka and is a
language spoken in the Solomon Islands. It is closely related to Tok
Pisin of Papua New Guinea; Bislama of Vanuatu; and Torres Strait Creole
of the Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia and is written in the Latin
alphabet. As of 1999 there were 306,984 second- or third-language
speakers with a literacy rate in first language of 60%,a literacy rate
in second language of 50%.
8 : Taiwan and Thai Pidgin English is a Pidgin used
by local people because of the influence of English which is taught
in all schools and colleges and is often used in commerce and government.
1 : Afro-Seminole Creole is spoken by Black Seminoles in scattered
communities in Oklahoma, Texas, and Northern Mexico. Speakers of Afro-Seminole
Creole live in Seminole County, Oklahoma and Brackettville, Texas in the United
States and in Nacimiento de los Negros, Coahuila, in Mexico. There are about 200
speakers of the language. Afro-Seminole Creole is related to the Gullah
language, a Creole spoken in the coastal region and Sea Islands of the U.S.
states of South Carolina and Georgia.
2 : Aku (dialect)
or Gambian Krio
is a variety of
Sierra Leone Krio, an English-based
Creole language of Western Africa. Aku
is spoken in Gambia, mainly by the Aku people,
who are descendants of the
Sierra Leone Creole people. In many ways the Akus are an extension of the
Sierra Leone Creole community.
: American Indian Pidgin English (AIPE) -
is a Pidgin English spoken by Native Americans. It is mentioned in
World Englishes, by Andy Kirkpatrick as one of many factors influencing
4 : Anguillan Creole is a Creole language spoken
on Anguilla island in the Caribbean. It is similar to varieties of Virgin
Islands Creole. The number of speakers of Anguillan Creole is below 10,000.
Anguillan Creole does not have the status of an official language.
5 : Antiguan Creole is
a Creole language spoken in Antigua and Barbuda. There are subtle differences in
Antiguan Creole's usage by different speakers, and Antiguans often use it in
combination with Standard English. The tendency to switch back and forth from
Creole to Standard English often seems to correlate with the class status of the
speaker. Many of the words used in the Antiguan dialect are derived from English
or African origins. The dialect was formed when slaves owned by English planters
imitated the English of their masters but pronounced it with their own
6 : Australian Kriol language
or Kriol (Northern Territory Pidgin English) is an Australian Creole language that developed out of the contact between European settlers
and the indigenous people in the northern regions of Australia, presently spoken
by about 30,000 people. Despite the language's similarities to English in
vocabulary, it has a distinct syntactic structure and grammar, and is,
therefore, a language in its own right.
Creole is spoken by
approximately 400,000 people in the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands.
Variations exist between the Creole spoken on various islands, villages or
communities on islands. Bahamian is spoken by both white and black Bahamians,
although in slightly different forms. Bahamian also shares similar features with
other Caribbean English Creoles, such as Jamaican Creole, Bajan, Trinidadian
Creole and Virgin Islands Creole. There is also a very significant link between
Bahamian and the Gullah language of South Carolina, as many Bahamians are
descendants of slaves brought to the islands from the Gullah region after the
: Bajan (occasionally called Barbadian
Patois) or Barbadian Dialect, is an English-based Creole language spoken on the
West Indian island of Barbados. Bajan uses a mixture of West African idioms and
expressions along with British English to produce a unique Barbadian/West Indian
vocabulary and speech pattern. Bajan is similar and distinguishable from the
dialects of neighbouring Caribbean islands, as many of the other Caribbean
islands are based on Irish- or Scottish-based English pronunciation such as
Jamaican Patois. Bajan uses a mixture of British English and West African
syntax, with much of the pronunciation of words sharing similarities with the
lilt of the West Country dialects of England, though it is becoming more
American than British. Due to emigration to Province of Carolina, Bajan has also
influenced American English and the
Gullah language spoken in the Carolinas.
Regionally Bajan has ties to
9 : Belizean Kriol language is most closely related
to Miskito Coastal Creole, but also Limón Coastal Creole, Colón Creole, and San
Andrés and Providencia Creole. Guyanese Creole and most English Creoles of the
Caribbean show similarity as well. Kriol has about 400,000 speakers, in Belize
(where it is the lingua franca and is spoken by 70% of the population). Kriol
was historically spoken by the Kriols, a population of mainly African and
British ancestry. However, most Belizean Garifunas, Mestizos, Maya, and other
ethnic groups speak Kriol as at least a second language, and it is the only true
common language among all groups.
: Bislama is the first language of
many of the "Urban ni-Vanuatu", and the second language of the rest of the
country's residents. More than 95% of Bislama words are of English origin; the
remainder combines a few dozen words from French, as well as some vocabulary
inherited from various languages of Vanuatu, essentially limited to flora and
fauna terminology. While the influence of these vernacular languages is low on
the vocabulary side, it is very high in the morphosyntax. Essentially speaking,
Bislama can be described as a language with an English vocabulary and an
: Bocas del Toro Creole is a linguistic variety
spoken in Bocas del Toro Province of Panama. Bocas del Toro Creole is no
language of its own, but similar to varieties such as Limón Coastal Creole. The
number of speakers of Bocas del Toro Creole is below 100,000. Bocas del Toro
Creole does not have the status of an official language. The native speakers of
this dialect call it Guari-guari (misquoted for many years by the Lonely Planet
as Gali-gali). It is a hybrid tongue of English and Spanish with elements of the
local Guaymí language of the Ngöbe Buglé people.
12 : Cayman Creole is spoken on Cayman Islands in the Caribbean. Cayman
Creole is not a language of its own, but considered a variety of English by some
observers. The number of speakers of Cayman Creole is below 100,000. Cayman
Creole does not have the status of an official language.
13 : Colón Creole is a language spoken in Panama.
Colón Creole is similar to varieties such as Limón Coastal Creole, Mískito
Coastal Creole, and Belizean Creole (Kriol). The number of speakers of Colón
Creole is below 300,000. Colón Creole does not have the status of an official
14 : Engsh is a language patois that originated in
Nairobi Kenya in the
developed in the poorer parts of Nairobi, Engsh evolved among the youth of the
richer, more affluent neighbourhoods. Engsh is English based, but mixes Swahili,
and other ethnic languages such as
Luo. However, just
like Sheng it is a code, and therefore cannot be understood, for the most part,
by standard English speakers. Both Engsh and Sheng originated as secret codes
against adults, to enable Nairobi youth to communicate with each other in a
language the adults could not understand. The original speakers have since
become adults, and parents. Both Engsh and Sheng evolve very fast, and the
ability to keep up with the "in" words of the moment becomes harder the older a
person gets, therefore they are still considered languages of the youth.
15 : Grenadian Creole is
a language patois that originated in Nairobi Kenya in the 80's. While Sheng
developed in the poorer parts of Nairobi, Engsh evolved among the youth of the
richer, more affluent neighbourhoods. Engsh is English based, but mixes Swahili,
and other ethnic languages such as Kikuyu and Luo. However, just like Sheng it
is a code, and therefore cannot be understood, for the most part, by standard
English speakers. Both Engsh and Sheng originated as secret codes against
adults, to enable Nairobi youth to communicate with each other in a language the
adults could not understand.
: Gullah language is a
spoken by the Gullah people (also called "Geechees"), an African American
population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal region of the U.S. states
of South Carolina and Georgia. It is also called Sea Island Creole English and
Geechee. Gullah is based on English, with strong influences from West and
Central African languages such as Mandinka, Wolof, Bambara, Fula, Mende, Vai,
Akan, Ewe, Yoruba, Igbo, Hausa, Kongo, Umbundu, and Kimbundu.
17 : Guyanese Creole is
a Creole language spoken by more than seven hundred thousand people in Guyana.
Guyanese is based on and influenced by the
Hindi languagee, as well as English. It is similar to other Indian dialects,
but distinctly different from indian, bajan, and arawak Creole. It is related to
18 : Hawaiian Pidgin is
based in part on English used by most "local" residents of Hawai'i. Although
English and Hawaiian are the co-official languages of the State of Hawai'i,
Pidgin is used by many Hawai'i residents in everyday conversation and is often
used in advertising toward Hawai'i residents. In the Hawaiian language,
"Hawaiian Creole English" is called "'ōlelo pa'i 'ai," which literally means
"hard-taro language." Japanese loanwords in Hawaii is Many
loanwords in Hawaiian Pidgin (or Hawaiian
Creole English) derive from the Japanese language. The linguistic
influences of the Japanese in Hawaii began with the first immigrants
from Japan in 1868 and continue with the large Japanese American
population in Hawaiʻi
19 : Jamaican language
is an English–African Creole language spoken primarily in Jamaica and the
Jamaican diaspora, known locally as Patois (Patwa). It is not to be confused
with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English. The language
developed in the 17th century, when slaves from West and Central Africa were
exposed to, learned and nativized the vernacular and dialectal forms of English
spoken by their masters : British English and
Hiberno English. Jamaican Patois is a
post-Creole speech continuum (a linguistic continuum)—meaning that the
variety of the language closest to the
acrolect) cannot be distinguished systematically from intermediate varieties
(collectively referred to as the
mesolect) nor even from the most divergent rural varieties (collectively
referred to as the
basilect). Jamaicans themselves usually refer to their language as
French term without a precise linguistic definition.
20 : Jamaican Maroon Spirit Possession Language is
a ritual language used by Jamaican Maroons while possessed by the spirits of
ancestors during Kromanti ceremonies or when addressing those who are possessed.
It is an English-based Creole, distinct from usual Jamaican Creole, but similar
to the Creoles of Suriname such as Sranan. An African language, Kromanti, is
used for the spirits of the oldest ancestors, who were born in Africa.
21 : Krio language is the lingua franca and the de
facto national language spoken throughout the West African nation of
Sierra Leone. Krio is spoken by 98% of Sierra Leone's population and
unites all the different ethnic groups in the country, especially in
their trade and social interaction with each other. The Krio language is
an offshoot of the language brought by the Nova Scotians from North
America and the numerous liberated Yoruba slaves who settled in Sierra
Leone. The vocabulary of Krio is derived primarily from English, while
its sound system, grammar and sentence structure are heavily influenced
by African languages ( at least 12 African languages), including aspects
from the Yoruba language of Nigeria and Twi of Ghana.
22 : Liberian Kreyol language or
is an English-based creole language spoken in Liberia and Sierra Leone.
It is spoken by 1,500,000 people as a second language (1984 census). It
is historically and linguistically related to
Merico, another creole spoken in Liberia, but is grammatically
distinct from it. Ir is also distinguished from the Kru Pidgin English,
a variant of Kreyol used by the
23 : Light Warlpiri is a mixed
language of Australia, with indigenous Warlpiri, Kriol~Australian
Aboriginal English (AAE), and Standard Australian English (SAE) as its
source languages. It is spoken in the Lajamanu community by adults under
the age of approximately 35 and by children as their first language
(although all children eventually also gain fluency in Warlpiri and
: Limónese Creole (also called
Limón Creole English or Mekatelyu) is an English-based creole language
spoken in Limón Province on the Caribbean Sea coast of Costa Rica. Limón
Coastal Creole is similar to varieties such as Colón Creole, Mískito
Coastal Creole, Belizean Kriol language, and San Andrés and Providencia
Creole. The number of speakers of Limón Coastal Creole is below 100,000.
Limón Coastal Creole does not have the status of an official language.
It is very similar to Jamaican Creole and has borrowed many words from
is an English based creole spoken in Malaysia and it is a portmanteau of
the word Malay and English (also possibly Mandarin and English). The
vocabulary of Manglish consists of words originating from English,
Malay, Hokkien, Mandarin, Cantonese, Tamil, and to a lesser extent
various other European languages, while Manglish syntax resembles
southern varieties of Chinese. Also, elements of American and Australian
slang have come through from imported television series. The Malaysian
Manglish is sometimes known as Rojak or Bahasa Rojak, but it differs
from the Rojak language by the usage of English as the base language.
26 : Miskito Coastal Creole or Nicaragua Creole
English is a language spoken in Nicaragua based on English. Its
approximately 30,000 speakers are found along the Mosquito Coast of the
Caribbean Sea. The language is nearly identical to Belizean Creole
(Kriol), and similar to all Central American Creoles. It does not have
the status of an official language.
Montserrat Creole is a Creole language spoken in Montserrat.
The number of speakers of Montserrat Creole is below 10,000. Montserrat
Creole does not have the status of an official language.
28 : Ndyuka
also called Aukan, Ndyuká tongo, Aukaans, or Okanisi, is a creole
language of Suriname. Most of the 25 to 30 thousand speakers live in the
interior of the country, which is a part of the country covered with
tropical rainforests. Ethnologue lists two related languages under the
name Ndyuka. Ndyuka is based on English vocabulary, with influence from
African languages in its grammar and sounds.
29 : Norfuk language (increasingly spelled Norfolk) is
the language spoken on Norfolk Island by the local residents. It is a
blend of English of the 1700s and Tahitian originally introduced by
settlers from the Pitcairn Islands who spoke Pitkern. It is the
co-official language of Norfolk Island. The language is closely related
to Pitkern, but has no other close relatives other than its parent
tongues of English and Tahitian. It is generally considered that English
has had more of an influence upon the language than Tahitian, with words
of Tahitian extraction being largely confined to taboo subjects,
negative characterisations, and adjectives indicating that something is
(also Pitcairnese) is a creole language based on an 18th century dialect
of English and Tahitian. It is a primary language of Pitcairn Island
with fewer than 100 speakers worldwide. However, the closely related
Norfuk language has a few thousand native speakers. Pitkern and Norfuk
are unusual in that, although their home islands are located in the
Pacific Ocean, they have been described as Atlantic creoles.
31 : Rama Cay Creole is a Creole language spoken by
some 8-900 people on the island of Rama Cay in eastern Nicaragua. It is
based on Miskito Coastal Creole with additional elements of the Chibchan
language Rama and purportedly some elements of English spoken with a
German accent. The creolization of the language is supposed to have
happened when Moravian missionaries who were native Germans but preached
in English enouraged the Rama-speaking population of the island to shift
: Rio Abajo Creole is a
linguistic variety spoken in Rio Abajo in Panama City, the capital of
Panama. Rio Abajo Creole is no language of its own, but similar to
varieties such as Limón Coastal Creole. The number of speakers of Rio
Abajo Creole is below 100,000. Rio Abajo Creole does not have the status
of an official language.
: Saint Kitts Creole is
a Creole language spoken in Saint Kitts and Nevis by under 100,000
people. Saint Kitts Creole does not have the status of an official
language. Saint Kitts Creole has much the same history as other English
Caribbean creoles. Its origin lies in 17th century West African slaves,
who, when brought to the islands to work on sugar plantations, were
forced to quickly learn British English because their labour required
it. Their English was mixed with some West African words and, in some
cases, West African language structure. The French, who occupied the
island from 1625 to 1713, had only a small impact on the creole spoken
today, unlike in the formerly French islands of Dominica and Saint
Lucia, which speak a French-based rather than English-based creole.
34 : Saint Martin Creole is an English-based creole
spoken on Saint Martin, an island in the Caribbean. Although Saint
Martin is politically half-French and half-Dutch, English is the
predominant language among the native population, especially on the
Dutch side. The number of speakers of Saint Martin Creole is below
100,000. Saint Martin Creole does not have the status of an official
: San Andrés-Providencia Creole is
a Creole language spoken in the San Andrés and Providencia Department of
Colombia by the natives (the Raizal ethnic group), very similar to the
Miskito Coastal Creole spoken in Bluefields, the Corn Islands and the
Mosquito Coast of Nicaragua. Its vocabulary is originated in English
language, but it has its own phonetics and many expressions from Spanish
and African dialects of the Kwa languages (Twi, Ewe and Ibi languages)
among others. It is not just a dialect with different phonetics and
syntax. It has its own grammar distinct from English and Spanish. The
language is also known as "San Andrés Creole", "Bende", and "Islander
36 : Singlish (Singapore) is an English-based
creole used in Singapore. According to the 2000 census, which does not
distinguish between Singlish and English, "English" is the lingua franca
of Singapore and 71% of Singaporeans are literate in the language.
However, well-educated Singaporeans are able to code-switch between
Singlish and standard English. The vocabulary of Singlish consists of
words originating from English, Malay (mainly Bahasa Melayu rather than
Indonesian), Hokkien, Teochew, Cantonese, Tamil, Bengali, Punjabi and to
a lesser extent various other European, Indic and Sinitic languages,
while Singlish syntax resembles southern varieties of Chinese. Also,
elements of American and Australian slang have come through from
imported television series and films. Recently, because Mandarin Chinese
is taught to most Singaporean Chinese students in school, Mandarin words
have also found their way into Singlish.
37 : Sranan Tongo
(also Sranan Tongo "Surinamean
tongue", Surinaams, Surinamese, Suriname Creole, Taki Taki) is a creole
language spoken as a lingua franca by approximately 400,000 people in
Suriname. It is the mother tongue of the Creoles. Sranan was previously
called nengre or negerengels (Dutch, "negroenglish"). Since this
language is shared between the Dutch-, Javanese-, Hindustani-, and
Chinese-speaking communities, most Surinamese speak it as a lingua
franca. Sranan Tongo's lexicon is thus a fusion of English, Dutch,
Portuguese and Central and West African languages.
38 : Tok Pisin (New Guinea) is a Creole spoken
throughout Papua New Guinea; in parts of Western, Gulf, Central, Oro
Province and Milne Bay Provinces the use of Tok Pisin has a shorter
history, and is less universal, especially among older people. It is an
official language of Papua New Guinea and the most widely used language
in that country.
Tobagonian Creole English is a Creole English
which is the general spoken language in Tobago. It is distinct from
Trinidadian Creole English and closer to other Lesser Antillean English
: Torres Strait Creole is
(also Torres Strait Pidgin, Torres Strait Brokan/Broken, Cape York
Creole, Lockhart Creole, Papuan Pidgin English, Broken English, Brokan/Broken,
Blaikman, Big Thap) is spoken on several Torres Strait Islands
(Queensland, Australia), Northern Cape York and South-Western Coastal
Papua. It has approximately 25 000 mother-tongue and bi/tri-lingual
speakers, as well as several second/third-language speakers. It is
widely used as a language of trade and commerce. The main influences
were Singapore Pidgin, Pacific Pidgin and Jamaican Creole.
41 : Trinidadian Creole
English is a Creole English which is the general spoken language in
Trinidad. It is distinct from Tobagonian Creole English and from other
Lesser Antillean English creoles. Like other Caribbean Creoles, TCE
combines syntax of African origin with a primarily English-derived
vocabulary. In addition, many expressions reflect the presence of a
French Creole (or Patois) substratum which was the primary language
until the end of the nineteenth century. Spanish, and Hindi and Bhojpuri
influences are also present in the language.
42 : Turks and Caicos Islands Creole is an English-based creole spoken
in the Turks and Caicos Islands, a British Overseas Territory in the
West Indies southeast of the Bahamas. Turks and Caicos Islands Creole is
similar to other Caribbean English creoles and is almost identical to
Bahamian Creole. These languages draw on African grammar while using a
largely English vocabulary. The number of speakers of Turks and Caicos
Islands Creole is around 10,000. Turks and Caicos Islands Creole does
not have the status of an official language.
43 : Vincentian Creole is a Creole language spoken in Saint
Vincent. The number of speakers of Vincentian Creole is at about
100,000. Vincentian Creole does not have the status of an official
: Virgin Islands Creole is an
English-based creole spoken in the Virgin Islands in the Caribbean.
Virgin Islands Creole is not to be confused with Negerhollands, a
Dutch-based creole that was once spoken in the Danish West Indies, now
known as the U.S. Virgin Islands.
: Angloromani (literally "English Romani") or Angloromany is a language combining aspects of English and Romani.
Romani was spoken in England until the late 19th century;
perhaps a generation longer in Wales. It was replaced by English as the everyday and family language of British Romani but this does not mean the language
disappeared entirely. Words of Romani origin were still used as part of a family-language. Words which are occasionally inserted into English conversation
are referred to in linguistic literature on Romani as 'Para-Romani' : the selective retention of some Romani-derived vocabulary following the disappearance
of Romani as an everyday language of conversation.
46 : Shelta (also known as Gammen, Sheldru,
Pavee, Caintíotar or simply "The Cant") is a language spoken by the
Irish Traveller people. It was often used to conceal meaning from those
outside the group. The language is found throughout Ireland, but is more
concentrated in the south-east part of the country. Shelta is a cant
originally based on Irish with some English influences. Because Shelta
originates from older versions of Irish, it was originally part of the
Goidelic branch of the Celtic language family. However, its syntax is
now primarily English based and has been heavily influenced by other
non-Celtic languages. As a result, Shelta has a character very different
from other Goidelic Celtic languages.
47 : Dominican English-Creole
or Cocoy is the dialect of Dominica, along with
Creole—French-based patois. Cocoy, or Kockoy, is a mix of Leeward Island
English-Creole and Dominican Creole. It is mainly spoken in the
north-eastern villages of Marigot and Wesley.
48 : Chinglonesian, a portmanteau of the words Chinese,
Indonesian, and English, is the English-based Creole spoken
colloquially in Indonesia, Singapore and other countries that have large
numbers of speakers of each language mentioned, for example Australia.
Chinglonesian adopts much of its vocabulary from English, especially
terms relating to the sciences, information technology and the arts.
However, much of its spoken, everyday vernacular is derived from
Indonesian and Malay, the two being mutually intelligable, with
differences being mostly regional. Chinese, predominantly Standard
Cantonese, is also used extensively, particularly for Asian concepts.
Extinct Creoles and Pidgins :
 Broome Pearling Lugger
Pidgin was a Pidgin that sprung up in Broome, Western Australia in the
early 20th century to facilitate communication between the various groups
working in the pearling industry there—Japanese, Malays, Torres Strait
Islanders, Koepangers, Hakka Chinese, Filipinos, a small number of Koreans, and
local Australian Aborigines, mainly of the Bardi tribe but also Nyulnyul,
Jabirrjabirr, Jukun, Yawuru and Karajarri people. Its words come primarily from
the Malay language (specifically Kupang Malay), but it also took some words and
grammatical features from Japanese, English (through the Pidgin English of the
Aborigines), and the local Australian Aboriginal languages.
Pidgin English (China Coast Pidgin) was the
vile jargon which forms the means of communication at the Chinese ports
between Englishmen who do not speak Chinese, and those Chinese with whom
they are in the habit of communicating.
Chukotka Pidgin English was spoken by the
English-speaking whalers and the Chukotka natives, indigenous people
inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula and the shores of the Chukchi Sea and
the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.
Inglés de escalerilla was a Spanish-English
Pidgin in use in Spanish Mediterranean seaports.
Japanese Bamboo English
was spoken between American military personnel and the Japanese in occupied
Japan after the Second World War. Recently it has been most widely used in
Okinawa, where there is a significant U.S. military presence.
Korean Bamboo English is the same as Japanese Bamboo English
with only a few local Korean additions.
Kru Pidgin English (KPE)
was the language of "Kru sailors," the Klao and Grebo men who worked
on board European vessels along the African coast.
Maori English Pidgin was an English-based pidgin language spoken in
Merico or Americo-Liberian is an English-based creole language
spoken until recently in Liberia by descendants of the Settlers, freed
slaves and African-Americans who immigrated from the southern US between
1819 and 1860. It is distinguished from Liberian Kreyol language and
from Kru, and may be connected to Gullah and Jamaican Creole. The
original Settlers numbered 19,000 in 1860. By 1975 the language was
partly decreolized, restricted to informal settings, and deprecated even
by its speakers.
Micronesian was a contact language between English sailors and
Micronesians during the 17th century.
New Caledonian / Loyalty Islands
was spoken in New Caledonia when the French annexed it in 1853, it seems likely
that this was the beach-la-mar pre Pidgin rather than an early form of the
stable Melanesian Pidgin English of today. This Pidgin was replaced by a largely
French-based Pidgin, however English-based variety was not replaced for
some time on the nearby Loyalty Islands.
Pigeon-English was the name given to the hybrid mixture of English, Portuguese and Chinese
used in business during the Victorian era between British traders and the residents of the Far East.
Pichinglis is (also pichi, pichingli, Pichingle, or broken-inglis)
was an English-based Creole spoken in Spanish territories during the
colonial period. "Pichinglis" can refer to a trade Pidgin used in the
Canary Islands, but can also refer to a Pidgin spoken in Spanish Guinea,
on the island of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) in the Gulf of Guinea,
where it served as a lingua franca.
 Port Jackson Pidgin English, Macassarese, Port Augusta Pidgin English
or South Australian Pidgin English was an English-based pidgin language
spoken in the 1920s.
Queensland Kanaka English,
Queensland Canefields English or Queensland Plantation Pidgin English is
an English-based Pidgin language that was spoken by Melanesian labourers
in Queensland, Australia from the late 1860s.
Pidgin is an English-based pidgin language that was spoken by plantation
workers in Samoa. It is closely related to Tok Pisin, due to the large
number of New Guinean laborers in Samoa.
Pidgin English was a Pidgin used by
German administration, primary language of commerce and higher education during colonization.
Vietnamese Pidgin English was a Pidgin used by American soldiers and Vietnamese people in the
Pidgin English also called Guinea Coast Creole English, was the lingua
franca of commerce along the West African coast during the era of the Atlantic
slave trade. British slave merchants and local African traders developed this
language in the coastal areas in order to facilitate their commercial exchanges,
but it quickly spread up the river systems into the West African interior
because of its value as a trade language among Africans of different tribes.
Later in its history, this valuable trading language was adopted as a native
language by new communities of Africans and mixed-race people living in coastal
slave trading bases like James Island, Bunce Island, Elmina Castle, Cape Coast Castle, and
Anomabu. At that point, it became a Creole language. Some scholars call this
language "West African Pidgin English" to emphasize its role as a lingua franca
Pidgin used for trading. Others call it "Guinea Coast Creole English" to
emphasize its role as a Creole native language spoken in and around the coastal
slave castles and slave trading centers by people permanently based there.
Other specificities :
Middle English Creole hypothesiss is the conjecture
that the English language is a
creole, i.e., a language that developed from a Pidgin. The vast
Middle English have led some historical linguists to claim that the
language underwent creolisation at the time of either the Norse or
Norman Conquests, or during both.
Naija lingo is an online
Nigerian Pidgin English and slang dictionary > Naija lingo is an online
Nigerian Pidgin English and slang dictionary Naijalingo provides
definitions to Nigerian words and phrases and its contents are written
by its users and moderated by the sites administrators, which also
includes some of its top users. The powers of users vary due to the
amount of words they have added to the site or their level of
participation on the site.
Rauma dialect Pidgin English is a dialect of Finnish spoken in the town of Rauma, western Finland. The written form of
the dialect was preserved by the writer and doctor Hj. Nortamo, and is currently practiced mainly as a hobby. Some of the most
distinctive characteristics of the dialect (as written) are the use of letters 'g' and 'b', which are not common in Finnish language.
Pronunciation of these letters is, however, closer to the more common 'k' and 'p' of mainstream Finnish.
"Rauman giäl". The dialect inherits words from languages such as
Swedish, English and German due to the seafaring past. The dialect has
been diluted into mainstream Finnish in day-to-day use, but it is fairly
well studied (mainly by
Hj. Nortamo) and practiced as a hobby.
Samaná English is a variety of the English
language in the Dominican Republic. Samaná English is spoken on the
Samaná peninsula of the island of Hispaniola. Samaná English is spoken
by over 10,000 persons. The speakers of Samaná English
are the descendants of slaves of African origin, who came from
the United States in the 19th century. Samaná English is variously
described a creole language, a dialect of English, or a linguistic
entity fitting neither category. A community of descendants of ex-USA
slaves settled in 1824. It is reported that there was a settlement of
African slaves here in the early 1500s. There are features of
creolization and archaic Black English.
French-based Pidgins and Creoles
1 : Agalega Creole is a
French-based creole language spoken in Agalega. It has been heavily
influenced by both Mauritian Creole and Seychellois Creole, as well as
Malagasy. The total population of speakers number just under 1,000.
(See below Bourbonnais Creole)
2 : Chagossian Creole (also Kreol Ilois or just
Ilois) is a French-based Creole spoken by the 3,000 or so Chagossians,
the former inhabitants of the Chagos Archipelago. It is currently spoken
in mainly Mauritius and the Seychelles. There is also a small minority
speaking it in the United Kingdom. (See below
3 : Dominican Creole (See below Antillean Creole)
4 : French Guiana Creole is a French-lexified
creole language spoken in French Guiana, and to a lesser degree, in
Suriname and Guyana. It resembles Antillean Creole, but there are some
lexical and grammatical differences between them. Antilleans can
generally understand French Guiana Creole, though the notable
differences between the créole of French Guiana and the créoles of the
Caribbean may cause some instances of confusion. The diffences consist
of more French and Brazilian Portuguese influences (due to the proximity
of Brazil and Portuguese presence in the country for several years.)
There are also words of Amerindian and African origin. There are
Guianese communities in Suriname and Guyana who continue to speak French
Guiana Creole. It should not be confused with the Guyanese Creole
language, based on English, spoken in neighbouring Guyana.
5 : Grenadian Creole (See below Antillean Creole)
6 : Guadeloupean Creole (See below Antillean Creole)
7 : Haitian Creole language is (kreyòl
ayisyen), often called simply Creole or Kreyòl (pronounced [kɰejɔl]), is
a language spoken in Haiti by about eight million people, which is
nearly the entire population, and via emigration, by about one million
speakers residing in the Bahamas, Cuba, Canada, Cayman Islands,
Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico, and United
States. The language is notable for being the most widely spoken creole
language in the world.
8 : Haitian Vodoun Culture Language is an unclassified language used in Haiti. It is also known as Langay
and Langaj (meaning literally "language"). This language is used for
religion, song, and dance purposes (it is used as a second language
only). In addition to borrowings from Haitian Creole French, French,
Wolof and other languages, it may also have loanwords from Amerindian
9 : Lanc-Patuá is a creole language spoken in
the state of Amapá in Brazil, primarily now around the capital, Macapá.
It is a French-based creole language, spoken by local Indians and
immigrants from French Guiana, the Caribbean and other areas of Brazil,
and their descendants. It has some English and Portuguese influence on
its vocabulary, but its grammar is clearly similar to the French-based
creole languages of the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean.
10 : Louisiana Creole French is (Kréyol
La Lwizyàn) is a French Creole language spoken by the mixed Louisiana
Creole people of the state of Louisiana. The language consists of
elements of French, Native American, Spanish, and West African roots.
11 : Martiniquese Creole or Créole martiniquais
(See below (Antillean Creole)
12 : Mauritian Creole, called Kreol Morisyen in the
language itself, is a creole language spoken in Mauritius. Almost all of
its vocabulary stems from French, with smaller numbers of words from
English and the many African and Asian languages that have been spoken
on the island.
(See below Bourbonnais Creole)
13 : Rodriguan Creole is a form of French Creole
spoken on the island of Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean. It is often
considered a dialect of Mauritian Creole. The total number of speakers
is estimated at 40,000. On the island of Rodrigues, English is the
official language, and French is also spoken.
(See Bourbonnais Creole)
14 : Réunion Creole
or Reunionese Creole, or Créole Réunionnais in French
(in Réunion Creole : Kréol Réyoné) is a creole language spoken on Réunion.
It is derived mainly from French and a few terms from other languages
(Malagasy, Hindi, Portuguese, Gujurati and Tamil). In the recent years,
some groups have tried to come up with a spelling dictionary and grammar
rules but there is still no official version. Partly because of the lack
of an official orthography but also because schools are taught in
French, Réunion Creole is rarely written. Réunion Creole is structurally
different from both other French-based creoles and from French. It is a
semi-creole, similar in this way to Afrikaans. (See below Bourbonnais Creole)
15 : Saint-Barthélemy Creole (See
below Antillean Creole)
16 : Saint Lucian Creole (See
below Antillean Creole)
17 : Seychellois Creole,
also known as Kreol or Seselwa, is the French-based creole language of
the Seychelles. It shares official language status with English and
French (in contrast to Mauritian Creole, which has no official status in
Mauritius). (See below Bourbonnais Creole)
Tobagonian Creole French (See below Antillean Creole)
19 : Tây Bồi is a term used for a type of
verbal communication which consists of French words mixed with
Vietnamese words spoken by non French-educated Vietnamese, usually those
who worked as servants in French households or milieux. Literally, it
means "French (Tây) [of- or spoken by] male servants (Bồi)". The term is
used by Vietnamese themselves to indicate that the French language
spoken is very poor, incorrect, and ungrammatical. Tây Bồi is perhaps
the Vietnamese equivalent of the term "Français petit nègre" ("little
negro French", literally) which refers to the same rudimentary broken
French spoken by uneducated natives or hired help or servants in French
20 : Tayo language also known as "patois de
Saint-Louis", is a French-based Creole spoken in New Caledonia. It is
the community language of one village, Saint-Louis, which is situated
approximately 17 kilometres from the capital Noumea.
Camfranglais, Camspeak, Majunga Talk is a newly created language, a composite slang used by
secondary school pupils in Cameroon, West Africa. It draws its lexicon
from French, English, West African Pidgin, various Cameroonian
indigenous languages, Latin, and Spanish. Secondary school pupils use it
among themselves to exclude outsiders while talking about such matters
of adolescent interest as food, drinks, money, sex, and physical looks.
There are four sections : language in the Cameroon educational system;
Camfranglais defined; an analysis of a sample Camfranglais text; and the
semantic domains of Camfranglais. There is a glossary of the terms
22 : Karipúna Creole is a French-based Creole (Kheuól) of Brazil. Karipuna is an extinct Pano-Tacanan language of South America, once spoken in Brazil. Lanc-Patuá is derived from Karipúna Creole spoken by indigeneous Amerindians.
- Antillean Creole is a French-lexified creole
language spoken primarily in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and
vocabulary also include elements of Carib and African languages.
Antillean Creole is related to Haitian Creole, but has a number of
distinctive features. The language was formerly more widely spoken in
the Lesser Antilles, but it has mostly vanished from Tobago and the
number of speakers is declining in Grenada. While the islands of
Dominica and Saint Lucia are officially English-speaking, there are
efforts in both countries to preserve the use of Antillean Creole and in
recent decades, it has gone from being seen as a sign of lower
socio-economic status to a mark of national pride.
Since the 1970s there has also been a literary revival in French
islands, with writers such as Edouard Glissant and Raphaël Confiant
among others. Dominican speakers of Antillean Creole call the language
Kwéyòl. Antillean Creole is spoken, to varying degrees, in Dominica,
Grenada, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint-Barthélemy (St. Barts), Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago. Antillean Creole has
approximately 1 million speakers.
- Bourbonnais Creole is a family of French-based
spoken in the western Indian Ocean. The close relation of the languages
is a consequent of the similar historical and cultural backgrounds of
the islands. There are six languages in this family : Agalega Creole,
Chagossian Creole, Mauritian Creole, Réunion Creole, Rodriguan Creole,
Extinct Creoles and Pidgins :
 Labrador Inuit Pidgin French
was is the form of pidgin communication that Inuit used when initiating
trading interactions. This trade language, an amalgam of Inuktitut,
Basque, French, Breton and even Montagnais elements, appears to have
been the lingua franca of the Strait of Belle Isle and North Shore
regions from as early as the sixteenth century.
'Little Moorish' was a pidginised French in North Africa that seems to have
emerged from the old lingua franca, eventually to merge into the local
Petit-Nègre or 'Little
a pidginised French in Africa and a similar temporary
development in West Africa,
especially Ivory Coast. It was most used
and around the French Army.
Lingua franca of the Mediterranean
("know") was a pidgin language used as a lingua franca in the
Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th century and is the
original basis for the word lingua franca. The name "lingua franca" in
Italian means "language of the Franks" (in the sense of 'Roman
Christians'). The generic description "lingua franca" has hence become
common for any language used by speakers of different languages to
communicate with one another. Based mostly on Catalan, Italian and
Provençal in the eastern Mediterranean, it later came to have more
Spanish and Portuguese elements, especially on the Barbary coast (today
referred to as the Maghreb). It also borrowed from French, Greek and
Malay-based Pidgins and Creoles
1 : Ambonese Malay was first brought by traders from Western Indonesia, then developed when the Dutch Empire colonized the Molluccas (Maluku).
This was the first example of the transliteration of Malay into Roman script, and used as a tool of the missionaries in Eastern Indonesia.
Malay has been taught in schools and churches in Ambon, and because of this, has become a lingua franca in Ambon and its surroundings. Christian speakers use
Ambonese Malay as their mother tongue, while Muslims speak it as second language as they have their own language. Muslims in Ambon island particularly
live in several areas in Municipality of Ambon, dominant in Salahutu and Leihitu Peninsula. While in the Lease (pron
: LAY-AH-SAY) islands, Christian
Ambonese-speaking community is dominant in part of Haruku, Saparua and Nusa Laut islands. Ambonese Malay Creole has also become lingua franca in Buru,
Seram, Geser-Gorom and South-West Maluku Islands, though with different accents. Ambonese Malay is based on Malay with a great influences from both
European languages (Dutch and Portuguese) as well as the vocabularies or grammatical structures of indigenous languages. It is famous for its melodious
accent. Muslims and Christian speakers tend to make different choices in vocabulary.
Bacanese Malay is spoken in Bacan islands and its surroundings, North Maluku. Distinct from both Ambonese and Ternate Malay.
 Larantuka Malay
Bandanese Malay is spoken in Banda Islands, Maluku and it has specific accents. Different from Ambonese
Malay and for Ambonese, Bandanese Malay is widely perceived as sounding funny due to its unique features.
Betawian Malay is a creolized-Malay which is spoken in Jakarta (the modern name for Betawi) and its surroundings. Betawian or Omong Betawi
is based on Bazaar Malay (Melayu Pasar) but influenced by various languages such as Javanese, Sundanese (the area is surrounded by Sundanese speaking area),
Chinese, Portuguese, Dutch, Balinese and others. Betawian creole began to be used after 1750 in Batavia, and replaced Portuguese creole as the lingua franca.
Betawian Malay was also influenced by Chinese-style Malay spoken by the Chinese settlers who had come earlier.
Bruneian Malay spoken in Brunei has some unique words when compared with Malaysian and Indonesian.
Kedahan Malay is spoken in Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang and in North Perak of Malaysia and Satun province of Thailand.
Kupang Malay is Spoken in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara West-end of Timor Island. It is based on archaic
Malay which mixed mostly with Dutch, Portuguese and local languages. Similar to Ambonese Malay with several
differences in vocabularies and accents. Its grammatical system resembles that of other East Indonesian Malay Creoles.
Larantuka Malay is as lingua franca in Larantuka, East Flores, East Nusa Tenggara. Based on Malay and distinct to Kupang Malay. While other parts of Flores island tend to speak standard Indonesian, in Sikka and in some communities
in Larantuka Portuguese is also spoken, particularly in religious matters. It can be heard in Holy Week rituals in Larantuka.
Manado Malay is a language spoken in Manado and the surrounding area. The local name of the language is Bahasa Manado, and the name Minahasa Malay is
also used, after the main ethnic group speaking the language. Since Manado Malay is used only for spoken communication, there is no standard orthography.
Manado Malay is actually a creole of the Malay language. It differs from Malay in having a large number of Portuguese and Dutch loan words and in traits
like for example its use of "kita" as a first person singular pronoun, while "kita" is a first person inclusive plural pronoun in Malay.
Papuan/Irian Malay is a contact language among tribes in Indonesian New Guinea (Papua and West Papua) for trading and daily communication.
Papuan and Irian declared Malay as their language since 1926, before the Sumpah Pemuda declaration. Nowadays, they tend to speak more formal Indonesian.
This variant is also understood in Vanimo, Papua New Guinea near Indonesian border.
Peranakan Indonesian is an Indonesian-based Creole language spoken in Java, Indonesia. Peranakan
Indonesian first developed during the 17th century among Chinese traders who married Javanese women.
12 : Pulau Pinang is spoken in Penang
island that was colonised by Britain in 1786 and became a mecca for
immigrants. This island once was the part of Kedah. Penangite Muslims
are descendants from various ethnic groups, such as Malays, Thais,
Burmese, Cambodians, Chinese, Indians, Javanese, Minangkabaus, Bataks,
Boyanese, Buginese, Banjarese, Arabs and Persians. Through
intermarriages, the local Kedah dialect has absorbed numerous foreign
Sarawakian Malay is a Malay dialect influenced by many Javanese (since that parts of Borneo was under Majapahit rule) and Dayak words, and it has many unique words when compared to standard Malay.
Sri Lanka Malay is an unique mixture of the Sinhalese language and the Tamil language with Malay.
Sri Lanka Malay (SLM) is a restructured vernacular of Malay base spoken by at least five different communities
in Sri Lanka which has evolved to be significantly divergent from other varieties of Malay due to intimate contact
with the dominant languages of Sinhala and Tamil. The Malays in Sri Lanka, whose ancestry include laborers brought
by the Dutch and British, as well as soldiers in the Dutch garrison, now constitute 0.3% of the population, numbering some 46,000.
It is spoken exclusively by the Malay ethnic minority in Sri Lanka.
Ternatean Malay is a creole that resembles to Manado Malay, but with different accents and vocabulary. A large percentage
of its vocabulary is borrowed from Ternatean, such as : ngana : you (sg) ngoni
: you (pl) bifi : ant ciri : to fall Spoken in Ternate, Tidore and Halmahera islands, North Maluku for intergroup communications, and in the Sula Islands.
Extinct Creoles and Pidgins :
Baba Malay is
spoken in Malaysia but is now now almost extinct. These are Malay
varieties spoken by the Peranakan, Chinese descendants who live in
Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia since the 15th Century. A kind of Baba
Malay is spoken among Chinese living in East Java. It is a mixture of
Malay or Indonesian with local Javanese (East Javanese dialect) and
Chinese elements (particularly Hokkien). This particular variety is
found only in East Java, especially in Surabaya and surrounding areas.
While other Chinese tend to speak the language varieties of the places
in which they live (the Chinese of Central Java speak High or Standard
Javanese in daily conversation even among themselves; in West Java, they
tend to speak Sundanese), in Surabaya younger ethnic Chinese people tend
to speak pure Javanese (Surabaya dialect) and learn Mandarin in courses.
Chinglonesian is a English-based pidgin
Portuguese-based Pidgins and Creoles
1 : Angolar language is also Ngola (Lungua N'golá) is a minority
language of São Tomé and Príncipe, spoken in the southernmost towns of
São Tomé island and sparsely along the coast. It is a creole language,
based partially on Portuguese with a heavy substrate of a dialect of
Umbundu (port. Umbundo), a Bantu language from inland Angola, where a
number of black slaves were taken to this island. Angolan residents and
tourists speaking Portuguese and Umbundo are surprised when they hear
this Creole which is almost similar to their dialect.
Annobonese language is known to its speakers as Fá d'Ambô or Fa D'ambu, is spoken by 2,500 in the Annobon
and Bioko Islands off the coast of Equatorial Guinea, mostly by people of mixed African, Spanish, and Portuguese
descent. Annobonese is a Portuguese Creole. It is called Falar de Ano Bom or annobonense in Portuguese,
and annobonés in Spanish. The language was spoken originally by the descendants of marriages between Portuguese
men and African women slaves imported from other places, especially from São Tomé and Angola, and therefore descends
from a mixture of Portuguese and Forro.
Cape Verdean Creole is also known as
is a language spoken on the islands of Cape Verde. It is a creole language of Portuguese basis,
it is the mother tongue of virtually all Cape Verdeans, and it is used as a second language by descendants of Cape Verdeans in other countries. According to
A. Carreira, Cape Verdean Creole was formed from a Portuguese pidgin, on the island of Santiago, starting from the 15th century. That pidgin was then transported
to the west coast of Africa by the lançados. From there, that
pidgin diverged into two proto-Creoles, one that was the base of all Cape Verdean Creoles, and another that was the base of the Guinea-Bissau Creole.
Crioulo cabo-verdiano have two separated dialects : Sul ou Sotavento
(Brava, Fogo, Maio, Santiago) and Norte ou Barlavento (Boa Vista, Sal,
Santo Antão, São Nicolau, São Vicente)
Daman Indo-Portuguese language or Daman Portuguese creole, known to its speakers as Língua da Casa (Portuguese for "Home language"),
is a Portuguese-based creole spoken in Daman. It is of the few Portuguese creoles still spoken in South Asia. The Daman creole is a descendant
of the Norteiro creole, spoken originally by the Norteiros on the Coast from Chaul, Baçaim, Bombay, Daman and Diu. Since the Norteiros are ethnic
Konkani people, the substrate of the Daman creole is likely to be Konkani. Gujarati has also been suggested as a possible substrate, but this is
doubtful, since the Gujarati people moved into the region only after the Portuguese arrived. The superstrate language is Portuguese. Before the Indian
annexation of the territory, the Daman creole had become more similar to standard Portuguese.
Forro language is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in São Tomé and Príncipe. The name means "freed slave" in Portuguese.
The language is also called crioulo santomense. It should not be confused with the dialect of Portuguese spoken in São Tomé and Príncipe.
Since both parties needed to communicate, a pidgin was formed. The substrate languages were from the Bantu and Kwa groups. This pidgin then
became fixed (creolized) as it became the mother language of children born from Portuguese men and African women slaves. (Mixed marriages
were then encouraged by the Portuguese Crown, for the sake of settlement.) Later because of Dutch and French pressure to gain the island,
many Portuguese settlers left.
Guinea-Bissau Creole is (native name kriol,kiriol or kriolu varying with dialects; crioulo da Guiné in Portuguese) is the lingua franca
of the West African country of Guinea Bissau. It is a Portuguese-based creole language, closely related to Cape Verdean creole. The Creole's
substrate language is the language of the local peoples : Mandingas, Manjacos, Pepéis and others, but most of the lexicon (around 80%) comes
from Portuguese. The dialect of Casamance (Ziguinchor), similar to the one of Cacheu (Guinea-Bissau) has some influence of French.
Kristang language is Papiá Kristang ("Christian language"), or just Kristang, is a creole language. It is spoken by the Kristang,
a community of people of mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry, chiefly in Malacca (Malaysia) and Singapore. The language is also called Cristão or Cristan ("Christian"), Português de Malaca ("Malacca Portuguese"), or simply Papiá. Its grammatical structure is similar to
that of the Malay language. Because of its largely Portuguese vocabulary, and perhaps also as a result of migrations and cultural exchange
along trade routes, Kristang has much in common with other Portuguese-based creoles, as well as with the extinct creoles of Indonesia and East Timor.
Kristi language is the language of some 1,000 Christians in an isolated area around the village of Korlai in Raigad District of Maharashtra state, India.
More commonly, the language is known as Korlai Creole Portuguese, Korlai Portuguese, or No Ling ("our language" in the language itself).
It is a creole language based on Portuguese.
Macanese language is or Macau Creole (known as Patuá to its speakers) is a creole language derived mainly from Malay, Sinhalese, Cantonese, and Portuguese,
which was originally spoken by the Macanese community of the Portuguese colony of Macau. It is now spoken by a few families in Macau and in the Macanese diaspora.
The language developed first mainly among the descendants of Portuguese settlers. These often married women from Malacca and Sri Lanka rather than from neighboring
China, so the language had strong Malay and Sinhalese influence from the beginning. In the 17th century it was further influenced by the influx of immigrants from
other Portuguese colonies in Asia, especially from Malacca, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka, that had been displaced by the Dutch expansion in the East Indies, and
Japanese Christian refugees.
Papiamento is the official and most widely spoken language on the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao (the so-called "ABC islands").
Papiamento is also spoken on the island of Sint Eustatius. Papiamento is a creole language derived from the Portuguese language with vocabulary influences
from African languages, English and Arawak native languages.
11 : Principense language called lunguyê ("Language of the Island") by its speakers, is a Portuguese creole spoken in a community of some four thousand people
in São Tomé and Príncipe, specifically on the island of Príncipe (there are two Portuguese-based creoles on São Tomé, Angolar and São Tomense), according to a
1989 study. Today it is mostly spoken by some elderly women (the Ethnologue entry lists 200 native speakers); most of the island's community speaks Portuguese;
some also speak Forro. Principense presents many similarities with the Forro on São Tomé and may be regarded as a Forro dialect. Like Forro, it is a creole
language based on Portuguese with substrates of Bantu and Kwa.
Simple Portuguese ('Pequeno Português' literally "Little Portuguese") is a Portuguese pidgin spoken throughout Angola, it is used for communication as a
lingua franca between speakers from different ethnic groups.
Sri Lankan Portuguese Creole,Ceylonese Portuguese Creole or Sri Lankan Portuguese Creole (SLPC) is a language spoken in Sri Lanka. While the predominant
languages of the island are Sinhala and Tamil, the interaction of the Portuguese and the Sri Lankans led to the evolution of a new language, Sri Lanka
Portuguese Creole (SLPC), which flourished as a lingua franca on the island for over 350 years (16th to mid 19th centuries). SLPC continues to be spoken
by an unknown, extremely small population.
Extinct Creoles and Pidgins :
Bidau Creole Portuguese (Português de Bidau) was a Portuguese-based creole language that was spoken in Bidau, an eastern suburb of Dili, East Timor until the 1960s, when the speakers shifted to standard Portuguese.
Bidau Creole Portuguese grew out of the Portuguese spoken by settlers and Mestiços from Flores Island, influenced by languages introduced to the area by military men from Lifau. It shares a number of features with nearby creoles such as Macanese.
Diu Indo-Portuguese language or Diu Portuguese Creole (in Portuguese língua dos velhos, "Elder's Language") was spoken in Diu, India.
It is a creole based on Portuguese and a local language. Widely spoken in the past, the language is rapidly disappearing because Gujarati is more
widely spoken and is now the main language of education there. Only the less educated elder members of the community speak it at home. In the past
there was a vibrant community of Portuguese-Indians who spoke it. It is one of the two living Portuguese Creoles of India.
 Papia Tugu language
was a language spoken in Tugu, village north of Jakarta, by descendants of 17th century Portuguese travelers.
It is a creole language similar to the Papiá Kristang of Malacca. The language was spoken until the 1940s, and the last speaker died in 1978.
The language now survives only in the lyrics of old songs of the genre Keroncong Moresco or Keroncong Tugu.
Portugis language is a language that was spoken by the Christians of mixed Portuguese and Malay ancestry in the islands of Ambon and Ternate in
the Moluccas (Indonesia), from the 16th century to the middle of the 20th century. Portugis was a creole based chiefly on Portuguese and Malay. The
language was gradually replaced by a creolized Malay called Ambonese Malay.
Spanish-based Pidgins and Creoles
Chavacano, also Chabacano, is a
Spanish-based creole language spoken in the Philippines. The Chavacano
language is the only Spanish-based creole in Asia. It has survived for
more than 400 years, making it one of the oldest creole languages in the
world. This creole has six dialects (Caviteño, Ternateño, Ermiteño,
Zamboangueño, Davaoeño and Cotabateño.Much of the words in the Chavacano
vocabulary are mostly derived from the Spanish language, while its
grammar is mostly based on other Philippine languages primarily, Tagalog
and Cebuano. Its vocabulary, especially the Zamboangueño dialect, has
some minor influences from the Italian language, Portuguese and several
Native American languages. The vocabulary of the Ternateño variety, in
particular, has a major influence from the Portuguese language. In
contrast with the Luzon-based creoles, the Zamboangueño dialect has the
most borrowings from other Philippine languages including Hiligaynon,
Subanen/Subanon, Sama-Banguingui, Tausug, Yakan, Tagalog and Ilocano.
Portuguese, Italian and some words of Nahuatl, Quechua, Mexican-Indian
and Taino origin are present in Zamboangueño.
Palenquero is (also palenque) is a
Spanish-based creole language spoken in Colombia. Palenquero is the only
Spanish-based creole in Latin America. The ethnic group which speaks
this Creole consists only of 3,000 people, as of 2007. Palenquero is
spoken in Colombia, in the village of San Basilio de Palenque which is
southeast of Cartagena, and in some neighborhoods of Barranquilla. The
village was formed by escaped slaves (Maroons) and sometimes Native
Americans. Since many slaves had not been subjected to a lot of contact
with people of European descent, the palenqueros spoke Creole languages
constructed from the Spanish language and their own African ones.
Spanish speakers are usually unable to understand Palenquero. Ten
percent of the population under 25 years of age speaks Palenquero, as of
1998. It is more commonly spoken by the elderly. There are some
influences from Kongo. Palenquero words like "ngombe," which means
cattle, are found in several Bantu languages.
Papiamento Also debated as to whether it is a
Spanish Creole or an Iberian Creole (See Portuguese-based Pidgins and Creoles).
Extinct Creoles and Pidgins :
was a Basque-based Pidgin and was
the tribe now known as the Micmacs. Souriquois was noted on a French map
of 1703 (Delisle) to occupy the western part of the peninsula of Nova
Scotia and the Micmaques on the eastern part. The term came from the
Basque zurikoa (pronounced “surikoa”) meaning “that of the whites.” It
may also refer to the Souris River in New Brunswick where the Basques
had a trading place, in which case the -koa ending would be a Basque
suffix denoting geographic origin and giving the word the meaning
“people from Souris.
Basque-Algonquian was a pidgin spoken by Basque whalers and
Montagnais and Inuits of Labrador in the area of the strait of
Belle-Isle and the north of the Gulf of the St. Lawrence. The Basques
distinguished four aboriginal groups : the “Montaneses” (Montagnais or
Innus, the “Souriquois” (Micmacs) the “Canaleses” (Iroquois) and the
“Esquimaos” (Inuits) which their appear hostile. Important contacts
between the Amerindian people and the Basques created pidgin with a
restricted vocabulary and rudimentary grammar, to find means of
communication. The people in with the Basques were mainly the Micmac and
Innus, also called Montagnais.
The Basque-Icelandic pidgin
was a pidgin spoken in Iceland in the 17th century. It developed due to
the contact that Basque traders had with the Icelandic locals, probably
in Vestfirðir. The vocabulary was heavily based upon the Labourdin
Basque language, but also in an Atlantic pidgin with Romance and English
influences. In the Basque-lexifier pidgins of Iceland and Canada of the
17th century, all nouns and adjectives are marked with the suffixed
Basque definite article -a, even when this would be ungrammatical in
Basque. Notice also that the order of noun and adjective differ in
Basque and the pidgin.
Other Pidgins and Creoles
German-based Pidgin or Creole
Namibian Black German (German : Küchendeutsch) is a pidgin language spoken in various parts of Namibia.
It is a non-standardized variety. Namibian Black German is based on standard German. Namibian Black German is presently near extinction.
It was spoken mostly by Africans who served their colonial masters when Namibia was known as German South-West Africa. (
Küchendeutsch means Kitchen-German).
Pidgin or Creole
1 : Asmara Pidgin Italian is a language spoken in the
neighbors of Asmara city, Eritrea.
Cocoliche is an Italian-Spanish pidgin that was spoken
by Italian immigrants in Argentina (especially in Greater Buenos Aires)
Hindi-based Pidgin or Creole
1: Bazaar Hindi is an Hindi-based Pidgin (also called
Hindustani pidgin) spoken in Shillong the capital of Meghalaya. The
people of Shillong speak varieties of Languages such as Khasi, Hindi,
many regional dialects of Hindi, Bengali, Assamese, Nepali, Manipuri,
Mizo, Garo, Punjabi, Malayalam, Marwari, Mikir and Kachari. Among these
different linguistic/ethnic groups, Bazaar Hindi a Hindi or Hindustani
based pidgin performs the function of a link language between rich and
educated and poor and Uneducated people of Shillong. Sizable number of
poor and uneducated people Shillong come from Bihar for their lively
hood and speak Bazaar Hindi. This Bazaar Hindi is influenced by Khasi,
Bengali and Assamese and it is extremely simplified and restricted in
its grammar and lexicon and it is a language in its own right.
2: Haflong Hindi is the lingua franca
of the North Cachar Hills district of Assam state of India. It is a
creole language that stemmed from Hindi and included vocabulary from
several other languages, such as Bengali, Assamese, Dimasa and the Zeme
Naga dialect. It is named after Haflong, which is the headquarters of
North Cachar Hills district.
Slavey-based Pidgin or Creole
Broken Slavey (also Broken Slavé, Broken Slave, Slavey Jargon, Broken
Slavee, Le jargon esclave) is a trade language used between Indians and
whites in the Yukon area (for example, in around Liard River and in the
MacKenzie River district) in the 19th century. Broken Slavey is based
primarily on the Slavey language with elements from French, Cree, and
perhaps to a lesser extent English.
Chinookan-based Pidgin or Creole
1 : Chinook Jargon originated as a pidgin trade language of
the Pacific Northwest, and spread quickly up the West Coast from modern
Oregon to the regions now Washington, British Columbia, and Alaska. It
is related to, but not the same as, the aboriginal language of the
Chinook people, upon which much of its vocabulary is based. Many words
from Chinook Jargon remain in common use in the Western United States
and British Columbia and the Yukon, in indigenous languages as well as
regional English usage, to the point where most people are unaware the
word was originally from the Jargon. The total number of Jargon words in
published lexicons only numbered in the hundreds, and so it was easy to
learn. It has its own grammatical system, but a very simple one that,
like its word list, was easy to learn.
1 : Malvani also known as "Malwani"
is a dialect of Konkani with significant Marathi influences. Some define
it as a Creole between Konkani and Marathi. It is spoken in the southern
part of Konkan Vibhag i.e. Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts; chiefly
in the towns of Malvan, Vengurla. It is also spoken in North Goa
specially Pernem taluka. Census Board of India counts Malwani as Konkani
dialect (which is official language of State of Goa). According to
Census Board of India, there are around 46851 Malwani speakers
throughout country out of 24Lac Konkani speakers. Malvani borrows many
words and grammar syntaxes from both Konkani and Marathi. But still it
has its own flavor of speaking. Even many words in Malvani have
different meaning or they don't even occur in any of these languages.
Mobilian Jargon (also Mobilian trade
language, Mobilian Trade Jargon, Chickasaw-Choctaw trade language, Yamá)
was a pidgin used as a lingua franca among Native American groups living
along the Gulf of Mexico around the time of European settlement of the
region. The name refers to the Mobile Indians of the central Gulf Coast.
Mobilian Jargon facilitated trade between tribes speaking different
languages. European exploring parties, such as that of de Soto, often
had Mobilian-speaking guides along as interpreters. Mobilian is a pidginized
form of Choctaw and Chickasaw (both Western Muskogean) that also contains
elements of Eastern Muskogean languages such as Alabama and Koasati,
colonial languages including Spanish, French, and English, and perhaps
Algonquian and/or other languages. Pamela Munro has argued that Choctaw
is the major contributing language (not both Choctaw and Chickasaw)
although this has been challenged by Emanuel Drechsel.
1 : Nagamese
("Naga Pidgin") is a Creole used in Nagaland. It is based on
Assamese. Since Nagaland is inhabited by people belonging to different
Naga tribes speaking languages which are mutually unintelligible,
Nagamese is the preferred form of communication for all. It is used in
the Nagaland Legislature, as a means of explanation in Nagaland schools
and in mixed households. It has been described as a Creole, which was
stable by 1936 and which is unlikely to decreolize. English is the
official language of Nagaland and 67.11% of the population is educated.
Nagamese has two cases, two tenses, three aspectual distinctions and no
gender. It shares a large part of its lexicon with Assamese.
Pidgin Hawaiian was a language spoken in Hawaii, which drew most of its
vocabulary from the Hawaiian language and could have been influenced by
other pidgins of the Pacific region. Emerging in the mid-nineteenth
century, it was spoken mainly by immigrants to Hawaii, and died out in
the early twentieth century. Like all pidgins, Pidgin Hawaiian was a
fairly rudimentary language, used for immediate communicative purposes
by people of diverse language backgrounds, but who were mainly from East
and South-East Asia. As Hawaiian was the main language of the islands in
the nineteenth century, most words came from this Polynesian language,
though many others contributed to its formation. In the 1890s and
afterwards, the increased spread of English favored the use of an
English-based pidgin instead, which, once nativized as the first
language of children, developed into a Creole which today is
misleadingly called Hawaiian 'Pidgin'. This variety has also been
influenced by Pidgin Hawaiian; for example in its use of the grammatical
Russenorsk (Norwegian for "Russo-Norwegian") was a dual-source pidgin
language in the Arctic combining elements of Russian and Norwegian,
created by Russian traders and Norwegian fishermen from northern Norway
and the Russian Kola peninsula. It was used extensively in Northern
Norway for about 150 years in the so-called Pomor trade, i.e., the
barter trade between Russians and Norwegians in the north. The first
attested word in Russenorsk is from the 18th century; the 19th century,
however, was the main period of its use. Russenorsk is important as a
test case for theories concerning pidgin languages since it was used far
away from most of the other documented pidgins of the world. An
interesting sociolinguistic feature is that there was no social
difference between its users. A special morphological feature is the
verb ending -om, probably taken from a (poorly attested) Russian-English
pidgin in Arkhangelsk.
Suriname Javanese/Caribbean Javanese
Aukan of Suriname
- Hiri Motu, (also known as
Police Motu or Pidgin Motu) is an official language of Papua New Guinea.
It is a simplified version of Motu and although it is strictly neither a
pidgin nor a Creole it possesses some features of both language types.
Phonological and grammatical differences mean not only that Hiri Motu
speakers cannot understand Motu, but also that Motu speakers not exposed
to Hiri Motu have similar difficulties, though the languages are
lexically very similar, and retain a common Austronesian syntactical
* Cappadocian Greek language, also known as Asia Minor Greek, is a dialect
of the Greek language, formerly spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey).
After the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in the 1920s, Cappadocian speakers were forced to emigrate to Greece, where they were
resettled in various locations, especially in Central and Northern Greece.
The Cappadocians rapidly shifted to Standard Modern Greek and their
language was thought to be extinct since the 1960s.
* Erromintxela is the name both for an group of Roma found in the Basque
Country and their language. The remaining speakers are today located on the coast of
Labourd, the mountains of Soule, Navarre, Gipuzkoa and Biscay. The language is best
described as a mixed language, deriving most of its lexicon from Kalderash Romani but
using Basque grammar and syntax, in a way similar to the Angloromani language. Ethnically
and linguistically, they are distinct from the Caló speaking Roma in Spain and the Kascarot
Roma in the Northern Basque Country. In other languages, it is occasionally referred
to as Caló Vasco, Romaní Vasco or Errominchela in Spanish, Basque Caló in English,
euskado-rromani or euskado-romani in French.
pidgin is a mixed language or pidgin that appears to have arisen in the
early 1990s. It is sometimes known Deutschrussisch in German or Nemrus
in Russian. Some speakers of the mixed language refer to it as Quelia.
It is spoken by some immigrants to Germany from Russia and other parts
of the former Soviet Union.
* Gurindji Kriol is the main language of the Gurindji people
of Kalkaringi and Dagaragu in the Northern Territory, Australia. It is a mixed
language, derived from Kriol, an English-based creole, and Gurindji, the traditional
Australian Aboriginal language of the Gurindji people, now spoken fluently only by older people.
* Hantec is a unique slang previously spoken among lower classes in Brno, Czech Republic during the 19th and early 20th centuries. It developed from the mixing of the Czech language as spoken in Moravia with the languages of other residents of Brno, including Germans and Jews. Today hantec exists in its original form only among some elderly people, but many words and expressions have become a part of Czech spoken in Brno.
* Laiuse Romani was a Romani variety spoken in northern Estonia. It was a mixed language based on Romani and Estonian. Laiuse Romani shares a number of linguistic features with Finnish Romani, such as palatalization of velar consonants before front vowels
and initial devoicing. Laiuse Romani became extinct in World War II, when all its speakers were killed under the Nazis' anti-Romani
racial policy, now called the Porajmos.
* Light Warlpiri
* Media Lengua (Spanish for "half language" or "in-between language") is a language spoken in Salcedo, about 100 km south
of Quito, Ecuador, by about 1,000 people of Native American ancestry. It is usually classified as a mixed language as it combines Spanish
vocabulary with a Quechua grammatical system, most conspicuously morphology. Most of its lexemes, especially almost all content words,
are of Spanish origin, only adapted to Quechua phonology, while its morphology, syntax and some particles are Quechua.
* Mednyj Aleut (Also called Copper Island Creole) is a nearly extinct mixed language spoken on Bering Island. It is characterized by Aleut
nouns and Russian verbs, each with the full inflectional complexity of the source languages. There are only 10 native speakers left. Originally, the
language was spoken in Copper Island, from where it takes its name, but all the population of that island was moved to Bering island in 1970.
* Michif language (also Mitchif, Mechif, Michif-Cree, Métif, Métchif, French Cree) is the language of the Métis people of Canada and the United
States, who are the descendants of First Nations women (mainly Cree, Nakota and Ojibwe) and fur trade workers of European ancestry (mainly French Canadians
and Scottish Canadians). The Michif language is unusual (and possibly even unique) among mixed languages, in that rather than forming a simplified grammar,
it developed by incorporating complex elements of the chief languages from which it was born. French-origin noun phrases retain lexical gender and
adjective agreement; Cree-origin verbs retain much of their polysynthetic structure. This suggests that instead of haltingly using words from another's
tongue, the people who gradually came to speak Michif were fully fluent in both French and Cree.
* Qoqmončaq language is a mixed language based on Kazakh, Mongolian, and Solon, spoken by about 200 people in the Xinjiang-Uyghur
Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
* Singdarin is an interlanguage native to Singapore. It is considered to be a Mixed language or a Mandarin-based Creole spoken in Singapore.
It has evolved primarily due to a combination of two main languages: Mandarin and English. For this reason, Singdarin is sometimes known as "Anglo-Chinese".
There were also words from Malay or other Chinese dialects, which are mixed into Singdarin. Singdarin is the first language of quite a number of younger
Singaporeans, especially those whose parents speak a mix of different languages at home such as English, Mandarin, Hokkien etc. Singdarin is also spoken
colloquially on streets and among young teenagers in Singapore. In general, well-educated Chinese Singaporean are able to code-switch between Singdarin
and Standard Mandarin.
* Wutun or Wutunhua,
Bonan Mongour Mongolian Wutunhua
is a mixed language based on Chinese
language and Tibetan-Mongolian mixed language spoken by about 2,000 people of
a branch of the Tu nationality in the eastern part of
the Qinghai province in the west of China.
* Armenian-Romani, Lomavren is purely Armenian in pronunciation and grammar
but there is nothing Armenian in its vocabulary. Thus, because they know Armenian, the Romani of Armenia utilize only
the Armenian system. They * use a complete Romani lexicon.
Ma’a, Inner Mbugu is one of the few genuine mixed languages,
reputedly combining Bantu grammar with Cushitic vocabulary in Tanzania.
In fact the people speak two languages : one mixed and one closely
related to the Bantu language Pare. It shows that these two languages
share one grammar while their lexicon is parallel. In the distant past
the people shifted from a Cushitic to a Bantu language and in the
process rebuilt a language of their own that expresses their separate
ethnic identity in a Bantu environment.
* Cakchiquel-Quiché, Kaqchikel-K’iche’ Mixed Language of Guatemala. Came from the K’iche’ area in the colonial period. Older speakers show a base of K’iche’.
* Traveller Danish
is a mixed language based on
Danish language and Romani in Denmark.
is a mixed language based on
English language and Romani
in the United Kingdom
* Michif is a mixed language based on
French language and Cree
in the United
* Rotwelsch Yeniche is a mixed language
German language and Yiddish-Roman
* Romano-Greek is a mixed language based on
Greek language and Romani in
* Caló is a mixed language based on
Iberian language and Romani
* Shelta is a mixed language based on
Irish language and undocumented
* Malawi is a mixed language based on
Makhua language and Nyanja Lomwe
* Traveller is a mixed language based
Norwegian language and Romani Norwegian
* Callawalla is a mixed language based on
Quechua language and Puquina
Mednyj is a mixed language based on
Russian language and Aleut
in Russian Federation
Romano-Serbian is a mixed language based on
Serbian language and Romani
Tagdal is a mixed language based on
Songhay language and Berber
Media Lengua is a mixed language based on
Spanish language and Quechua
Tavringer is a mixed language based on
Swedish language and Romani
Nguluwan is a mixed language based on
Yapese language and Ulithi
* Camtho is a mixed language based on
Zulu language and Bantuin South Africa.
E is a mixed language in China.
N’ko is a mixed language in Guinea.
Une lingua franca
(signifie littéralement la langue franche en italien) est
une langue systématiquement employée par des personnes ne partageant pas une langue
maternelle commune, en particulier quand c'est une troisième
langue parlée par deux personnes n'ayant pas la même langue
La lingua franca a une base définie,
indépendante de l'histoire linguistique ou de la structure
: cependant les pidgins et les créoles fonctionnent souvent
comme lingua franca, même si beaucoup de linguas francas ne sont ni des
pidgins ni des créoles.
La lingua franca peut également se rapporter à la langue de facto
dans des domaines plus ou moins spécialisés.
Le synonyme de lingua franca est « langue véhiculaire ».
Considérant qu'une langue vernaculaire est employée comme langue
maternelle dans une simple communauté, une
langue véhiculaire dépasse les frontières de la communauté
d'origine, et est employée comme deuxième langue pour la
communication entre les communautés. Par exemple, l'anglais est
une langue vernaculaire en Angleterre, mais est employé comme langue
véhiculaire (c'est-à-dire, lingua franca) aux Philippines.
A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish
language) is a language systematically used to communicate
between persons not sharing a mother tongue, in particular when
it is a third language, distinct from both persons' mother
Lingua franca is a functionally defined term, independent of the
linguistic history or structure of the language : though Pidgins
and Creoles often function as lingua francas, many lingua
francas are neither Pidgins nor Creoles.
Lingua franca may also refer to the de facto language within a
more or less specialized field.
A synonym for lingua franca is “vehicular language.” Whereas a
vernacular language is used as a native language in a single
speaker community, a vehicular language goes beyond the
boundaries of its original community, and is used as a second
language for communication between communities. For example,
English is a vernacular in England, but is used as a vehicular
language (that is, a lingua franca) in the Philippines.
Une langue créole est une langue
stable qui ressemble apparemment à un pidgin qui est devenue
langue maternelle. La
compréhension sur le fondement du créole a été clairifiée grâce à la notion de Robert A. Hall
concernant le cycle pidgin-créole. Tandis qu'il est défendable
de penser que les créoles partagent des similitudes grammaticales
entre les uns avec les autres plutôt qu'avec les langues dont elle dérivent, aucune théorie pour expliquer
de créolisation n'a été universellement acceptée. Le rapport entre les
pidgins et les créoles ainsi que leurs similitudes signifie que la
distinction n'est pas définie et la variété de phénomènes qui
créent des pidgins et des créoles ne sont pas
bien compris. De même, les efforts d'articuler les dispositifs
grammaticaux qui sont exclusifs
aux créoles n'ont pas été réussis jusqu'ici.
Creole language, or simply a Creole, is a stable language
that originates seemingly as a nativized Pidgin. This
understanding of Creole genesis culminated in Robert A. Hall's notion of
the Pidgin-Creole life cycle. While it is arguable that Creoles
share more grammatical similarities with each other than with
the languages they phylogenetically derive from, no theory for
explaining Creole phenomena has been universally accepted. The
relationship between Pidgins and Creoles and their similarities
means that the distinction is not clear-cut and the variety of
phenomena that arise to create Pidgins and Creoles are not well
understood. Likewise, efforts to articulate grammatical features that are exclusive to
Creoles have been
unsuccessful thus far.
pidgin est une langue simplifiée qui se développe entre deux
groupes ou plus qui n'ont pas une langue commune. Il est utilisé dans les situations telles
que le commerce, ou quand deux groupes linguistiques parlent des langues
différentes de la langue du pays dans lequel ils résident (mais
là où il n'y a aucune langue commune entre les groupes). Un « pidgin
» est, fondamentalement, un moyen simplifié de
communication, construit de façon impromptue,
ou par convention, entre les groupes de personnes. Un pidgin n'est
jamais la langue maternelle d'une communauté, mais il est à la place appris comme deuxième langue.
Une « pidgin » peut être établie à partir de mots, de sons,
ou de langage du corps.
Les pidgins ont habituellement aucun prestige comparés autres
langues. Chaque « pidgin » a ses propres règles d'utilisation
qui doivent être apprises pour bien le parler.
Le vocabulaire d'un pidgin provient essentiellement d'une
langue particulière (Appelé le lexifier (langue
Unique règles grammaticales,
Il n'y a pas de langue maternelle,
En général, une langue rendue nécessaire pour le commerce
Quelle est la différence entre un Pidgin et un créole ?
Le pidgin n'est pas une langue maternelle et est une forme de communication entre deux langues mutuellement
Le créoles est une langue maternelle, ayant du vocabulaire,
plus de portée linguistique, susceptible d'être parlé
Pidgin language is a simplified language that develops as
a means of communication between two or more groups that do not
have a language in common, in situations such as trade, or where
both groups speak languages different to the language of the
country in which they reside (but there is no common language
between the groups). A 'Pidgin' language is, fundamentally, a
simplified means of linguistic communication, as is constructed
impromptu, or by convention, between groups of people. A
'Pidgin' language is not the native language of any speech
community, but is instead learnt as a second language. A
'Pidgin' language may be built from words, sounds, or body
language from multiple other languages / cultures. 'Pidgin'
languages usually have low prestige with respect to other
languages. Each 'Pidgin' language has its own norms
of usage which must be learnt to speak the 'Pidgin' language
Vocabulary of a pidgin comes mainly from one
particular language (Called the lexifier (A lexifier
is the dominant language of a particular pidgin or creole
language that provides the basis for the majority of
vocabulary.), Unique grammatical rules, There are no native
speaker, Typically a language necessitated by trade)
What’s the difference?
A Pidgin is NOT a mother tongue, form of communication between two mutually unintelligible
IS a mother tongue with larger vocabulary, a greater linguistic range, capable of being spoken quicker.
Lingua franca, Pidgin & Creole (all languages) [Show]
Lingua franca, Pidgin & Creole (all languages) [Hide]
Lingua franca : لغة تواصل مشترك,
Лингва франка, Лингва-франка,
Lingvafrankao, Lengua vehicular, Langue véhiculaire, Francbhéarla, לינגואה פרנקה, Közvetítőnyelv,
リングワ・フランカ, 링구아 프랑카,
සම්බන්ධීකරණ භාෂා, Lingua franca (dorozumievací jazyk), Лингва франка,
Лінгва франка, 通用语,
Pidgin : Yezh vehikular, Vehikularsprache, Lingua vehicular
Pidgin-Sprachen, رطانة, Піджын, Пиджин,
Pidgin (lingüística), Pidžin, Pidgin-Sprachen, Piĝino, Pidžin, Pidgin (hizkuntza), Nasctheanga, Pidgins, פידג'ין, Pidžin,
Pidzsin nyelv, Bahasa Pidgin, Blendingsmál, ピジン言語, pidjni, 피진 (언어학), Pidžinas, Bahasa pijin, Pidgin-Spraak,
Pidgin (taal), Pidginspråk, Języki pidżynowe, Пиджин, Pidžin, Pidginspråk, Pidgin (dil), Піджин, 皮钦语, 洋涇浜.
Creole : Kreooltaal, Kreolsprachen, Yezhoù kreolek, Kreolština, Kreolsprog, Kreolsprachen, Lengua criolla, Kreola lingvo, Créole (linguistique), Kreoalsk, Fásteanga, Linguas crioulas, 크리올 (언어학),
Kreolski jezici, Bahasa kreol, Lingua creol, Lingua creola, שפה קריאולית, კრეოლური ენა, Lang kreyòl, Kreolu valodas,
Kreolų kalbos, Kreol nyelv, Creoolse talen, クレオール言語, Kreolspråk, Creòl (lenga), Kreoolspraak, Języki kreolskie, Línguas crioulas, Limba creolă,
Креольские языки, Creole language, Kreolščina, Креолски језици,
Kreolski jezici, Kreolikieli, Kreolspråk, Kreol, Креольські мови, Creolo, Ngôn ngữ Creole, 克里奧爾語 .
Map (all languages) [Show]
Map [Hide] Aragonés -
Mapa / العربية - خريطة / Asturianu - Mapa / Български - Карта / বাংলা -
মানচিত্র / Bosanski - Karta / Català - Plànol / Česky - Mapa / Dansk - Kort
(geografi) / Deutsch - Karte (Kartografie) / English - Map / Esperanto -
Mapo / Español - Mapa / Euskara - Mapa / Eesti - Kaart (kartograafia) /
فارسی - نقشه (زمین) / Suomi - Kartta / Français - Carte géographique /
Galego - Mapa / עברית - מפה / हिन्दी - मानचित्र / Hrvatski - Karta / Magyar
- Térkép / Bahasa Indonesia - Peta / Íslenska - Kort / Italiano - Mappa /
日本語 - 地図 / ქართული - გეოგრაფიული რუკა / 한국어 - 지도 / Lëtzebuergesch -
Landkaart / Lietuvių - Žemėlapis / മലയാളം - ഭൂപടം / Bahasa Melayu - Peta /
Nederlands - Kaart (cartografie) / Norsk (nynorsk) - Kart / Norsk
(bokmål) - Kart / Polski - Mapa / Português - Mapa / Română - Hartă /
Русский - Географическая карта / Scots - Cairt / Slovenčina - Mapa /
Slovenščina - Zemljevid / Shqip - Harta / Српски / Srpski - Карта (мапа) /
Basa Sunda - Atlas / Svenska - Karta / தமிழ் - நிலப்படம் / Тоҷикӣ - Харита /
ไทย - แผนที่ / Tagalog - Mapa / Türkçe - Harita / Українська - Карта
(зображення) / Tiếng Việt - Bản đồ / 中文 - 地图 / - 地圖 / 粵語 - 地圖
Language (all languages) [Show]
Afrikaans - Taal / Alemannisch - Sprache / Aragonés - Lenguache / العربية -
لغة / Asturianu - Idioma / Aymar - Aru / Azərbaycan - Dil / Башҡорт - Тел
(фән) / Boarisch - Sprache / Žemaitėška - Kalba / Беларуская - Мова /
Беларуская (тарашкевіца) - Мова / Български - Език (лингвистика) /
Bamanankan - Kan / Brezhoneg - Yezh / Bosanski - Jezik / Català - Llenguatge
Llengua / Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄ - Ngṳ̄-ngiòng / Нохчийн - Мотт / Cebuano -
Pinulongan / Česky - Jazyk (lingvistika) / Чăвашла - Чĕлхе / Cymraeg - Iaith
/ Dansk - Sprog / Deutsch - Sprache / Zazaki - Zıwan (lisan) / ދިވެހިބަސް -
ބަސް / Ελληνικά - Γλώσσα / English - Language - Tongue / Español - Lengua -
Idioma / Esperanto - Lingvo / Eesti - Keel (keeleteadus) / Euskara -
Hizkuntza / فارسی - زبان / Suomi - Kieli / Võro - Keeleq / Føroyskt - Mál /
Français - Langage Langue / Arpetan - Lengua / Furlan - Lengaç / Frysk -
Taal / Gaeilge - Teanga (cumarsáid) / Gàidhlig - Cànan / Galego - Linguaxe /
ગુજરાતી - ભાષા / עברית - שפה / हिन्दी - भाषा / Hrvatski - Jezik / Kreyòl
ayisyen - Lang / Magyar - Nyelv / Interlingua - Linguage / Bahasa Indonesia
- Bahasa / Ilokano - Pagsasao / Ido - Linguo / Íslenska - Tungumál /
Italiano - Linguaggio Lingua / 日本語 - 言語 / Lojban - bangu / Basa Jawa - Basa
/ Kongo - Ndinga / 한국어 - 언어 / Ripoarisch - Sprooch / Kurdî / كوردی - Ziman /
Kernewek - Yeth / Кыргызча - Тил / Lëtzebuergesch - Sprooch / Limburgs -
Taol / Lingála - Lokótá / Lietuvių - Kalba / Latviešu - Valoda / Basa
Banyumasan - Basa / Malagasy - Fiteny / Македонски - Јазик / മലയാളം - ഭാഷ /
मराठी - भाषा / Bahasa Melayu - Bahasa / مَزِروني - Zivan / Nederlands - Taal
/ Norsk (nynorsk) - Språk / Norsk (bokmål) - Språk / Nouormand - Laungue
/ Diné bizaad - Bizaad / Occitan - Lenga / Deitsch - Schprooch / Polski -
Język (mowa) / پښتو - ژبې / Português - Linguagem Línguas/ Runa Simi - Rimay
/ Romani - Chhib / Română - Limbă / Русский - Язык / Sardu - Limbas /
Sicilianu - Lingua (parràta) / Scots - Leid / Sámegiella - Giella / Simple
English - Language / Slovenčina - Jazyk (lingvistika) / Српски / Srpski -
Језик / Seeltersk - Sproake / Svenska - Språk / Kiswahili - Lugha / தமிழ் -
மொழி / Тоҷикӣ - Забон (суxан) / ไทย - ภาษา / Türkmen - Dil / Tagalog - Wika
/ Türkçe - Dil (lisan) / Українська - Мова / Tiếng Việt - Ngôn ngữ / Volapük
- Pük / Walon - Lingaedje / isiXhosa - Ulwimi / ייִדיש - שפראך / 中文 - 语言 /
Bân-lâm-gú - Gí-giân / 粵語 - 話
Linguistic (all languages) [Show]
Afrikaans - Taalwetenskappe / አማርኛ - የቋንቋ ጥናት / Aragonés - Lingüistica /
العربية - لسانيات / Asturianu - Llingüística / Žemaitėška - Kalbuotīra /
Беларуская - Мовазнаўства / Беларуская (тарашкевіца) - Мовазнаўства /
Български - Езикознание / Bamanankan - Kankalan / বাংলা - ভাষাবিজ্ঞান /
Brezhoneg - Yezhoniezh / Català - Lingüística / Cebuano - Linggwistiks /
Corsu - Linguistica / Česky - Lingvistika / Kaszëbsczi - Lingwistika /
Чăвашла - Лингвистика / Cymraeg - Ieithyddiaeth / Dansk - Sprogforskning /
Deutsch - Sprachwissenschaft / Dolnoserbski - Rěcywěda / ދިވެހިބަސް - ބަހަވީ
އިލްމު / Ελληνικά - Γλωσσολογία / English - Linguistics / Esperanto -
Lingvistiko / Español - Lingüística / Eesti - Keeleteadus / Euskara -
Hizkuntzalaritza / فارسی - زبانشناسی / Suomi - Kielitiede / Võro -
Keeletiidüs / Føroyskt - Málfrøði / Français - Linguistique / Furlan -
Lenghistiche / Frysk - Taalkunde / Gaeilge - Teangeolaíocht / Galego -
Lingüística / Gaelg - Çhengoaylleeaght / עברית - בלשנות / हिन्दी -
भाषाविज्ञान / Hrvatski - Jezikoslovlje / Hornjoserbsce - Rěčespyt / Kreyòl
ayisyen - Lengwistik / Magyar - Nyelvészet / Interlingua - Linguistica /
Bahasa Indonesia - Linguistik / Interlingue - Linguistica / Ido -
Linguistiko / Íslenska - Málvísindi / Italiano - Linguistica /
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut - ᐅᖄᓯᓕᕆᓂᖅ/urkaasiliriniq / 日本語 - 言語学 / Basa Jawa -
Linguistik / ქართული - ენათმეცნიერება / ಕನ್ನಡ - ಭಾಷಾ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನ / 한국어 - 언어학 /
Ripoarisch - Shproocheweßßeschaff / Kurdî / كوردی - Zimannasî / Kernewek -
Scyens Yeth / Latina - Linguistica / Ladino - Linguistika / Lëtzebuergesch -
Sproochwëssenschaft / Limburgs - Taalweitesjap / ລາວ - ພາສາສາດ / Lietuvių -
Kalbotyra / Latviešu - Valodniecība / Македонски - Лингвистика / Bahasa
Melayu - Linguistik / Malti - Lingwistika / Nahuatl - Tlahtōlmatiliztli /
Plattdüütsch - Spraakwetenschop / Nederlands - Taalkunde / Norsk (nynorsk)
- Lingvistikk / Norsk (bokmål) - Lingvistikk / Novial - Linguistike /
Nouormand - Lîndgistique / Иронау - Æвзагзонынад / Polski - Językoznawstwo /
پښتو - ژبپوهنه / Português - Lingüística / Runa Simi - Simi yachaq / Romani
- Chhibavipen / Română - Lingvistică / Русский - Лингвистика / Sardu -
Linguìstica / Sicilianu - Linguìstica / Scots - Lingueestics /
Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски - Jezikoslovlje / Simple English -
Linguistics / Slovenčina - Jazykoveda / Shqip - Gjuhësia / Српски / Srpski -
Лингвистика / Seeltersk - Sproakwietenskup / Basa Sunda - Linguistik /
Svenska - Språkvetenskap / Kiswahili - Isimu / தமிழ் - மொழியியல் / Тоҷикӣ -
Забоншиносӣ / ไทย - ภาษาศาสตร์ / Tagalog - Linggwistika / Türkçe - Dil
bilimi / Tatarça - Тел белеме / Українська - Мовознавство / اردو - لسانيات /
Vèneto - Łenguìstega / Tiếng Việt - Ngôn ngữ học / Walon - Linwince /
Winaray - Lingguwistika / ייִדיש - לינגוויסטיק / Zeêuws - Taelkunde / 中文 -
语言学 / - 語言學 / Bân-lâm-gú - Gí-giân-ha̍k / 粵語 - 語言學