Linguistic criteria and Frequently Asked Questions
Version française : Politique interne,
limites d'utilisation, politique sur le respect de la vie privée et
déresponsabilité des liens externes
Internal Policy for linguistic maps
http://www.muturzikin.com is a website with
neutral point of view.
It's a fundamental Muturzikin.com principle which states that all maps have been
drawn from a neutral point of view, they represent views fairly
and without bias. This includes maps and categories.
Types of bias excluded for linguistic maps: class, commercial, ethnic or racial,
gender, geographical, nationalistic, political, religious and
For linguistic maps :
The resources found on the Muturzikin website are intended for scholarly
research and educational use. You may make a copy (Print Screen) or need a copy of portions of these documents
for research or educational purposes free of charge and with
Reference with proper attribution Mutur Zikin's website on your
documents with this address : http://www.muturzikin.com.
Republication or commercial use of any original material (linguistic maps)
in this website is
You may make links to pages on this website (with proper attribution), but
you may not mirror (i.e., place copies of). To transclude (It is a feature of
substitution templates) these maps, in part or whole, on
your website you need a Mutur Zikin’s authorization.
No futher permission for the rest : GIF,services...You are free to download everything you want.
Muturzikin does not send unsolicited or "spam" e-mail and does not
sell, rent, or trade its e-mail lists to third parties.
If you supply us with your email address, you will receive the
information for which you provided us your address. If you have any questions or
External Links Disclaimer
Some links in on Muturzikin .com's Web site point to documents and sites
which are not located within the Muturzikin .com internet domain and, therefore,
are not managed or controlled by Muturzikin .com. These links are included to
point the reader to other possibly relevant resources.
A link to a document or site other than those included within the Muturzikin.com domain does not necessarily imply that Muturzikin.
endorses the organization(s) or person(s) providing them,
agrees with the ideas expressed, or
attests to the correctness, factuality, appropriateness, or legality of
Mutur Zikin is always interested to know what you
do with my linguistic maps.
Sites with Neutral Point of View (NPOV)
Wikipedia is a free,
multilingual encyclopedia project supported by the non-profit Wikimedia
Foundation. Its name is a portmanteau of the words wiki (a technology for
creating collaborative websites) and encyclopedia. Wikipedia’s 10 million
articles have been written collaboratively by volunteers around the world, and
almost all of its articles can be edited by anyone who can access the Wikipedia
website. Launched in 2001 by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, it is currently the
largest and most popular general reference work on the Internet.
Wikimedia Commons is a repository
of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. It is a project of the
Wikimedia Foundation, from which uploaded files can be used across all Wikimedia
projects in all languages, including Wikipedia, Wikibooks, Wikisource and
Wikinews, or downloaded for offsite use, as all of the content is either in the
public domain or released under free licenses such as the GNU Free Documentation
License. As of July 2008, the repository contained over 3 million media files.
The World Atlas of Language Structures Online is a joint project of the
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the Max Planck Digital Library .
WALS is a large database of structural (phonological, grammatical, lexical) properties of languages
gathered from descriptive materials (such as reference grammars) by a team of more than
40 authors (many of them the leading authorities on the subject).
Websites with religious bias
SIL International Founded over 70 years
ago, SIL International is a faith-based organization that studies, documents,
and assists in developing the world’s lesser-known languages. SIL’s staff shares
a Christian commitment to service, academic excellence, and professional
engagement through literacy, linguistics, translation, and other academic
disciplines. SIL makes its services available to all without regard to religious
belief, political ideology, gender, race, or ethnic background. SIL (initially
known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) has grown from a small summer
linguistics training program with two students in 1934 to a staff of over 5,000
coming from over 60 countries. SIL’s linguistic investigation exceeds 1,800
languages spoken by over 1.2 billion people in more than 70 countries
Ethnologue.com is a place where you
can conveniently find many resources to help you with your research of the
world’s languages. Ethnologue.com is owned by
SIL International, a service organization that
works with people who speak the world’s lesser-known languages.
Mapping International is a non-profit organization dedicated to
furthering the cause of world evangelization through applied mission research,
mapping and publishing. Click on any of the links below to learn more.
Joshua Project is a
research initiative seeking to highlight the ethnic people groups of the world
with the least followers of Christ. The mission of Joshua Project is to help
bring definition to the unfinished task of the Great Commission by identifying
and highlighting the people groups of the world that have the least exposure to
the Gospel and the least Christian presence in their midst.
In collaboration with religious websites
Proel: Promotora Española de
Lingüística (Proel) es una organización registrada en el Ministerio del
Interior, que colabora con varias entidades, especialmente con la organización
internacional SIL (SUMMER INSTITUTE OF LINGUISTICS, en castellano ILV--INSTITUTO
LINGÜÍSTICO DE VERANO), para impulsar el desarrollo lingüístico de las lenguas
minoritarias, tanto en España como en el mundo. Proel también divulga en España
las oportunidades de servicio internacional que ofrece el SIL.
Geocortex.net is the web-based GIS
Geographics, a software company that specializes in helping customers and
business partners enjoy rapid success with web-based Geographic Information
System (GIS) technology developed by Environmental Research Systems Institute (ESRI
is the world leader in GIS).
Organizations or institutions
UNESCO: the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization. For this specialized United Nations agency, it is not enough to build
classrooms in devastated countries or to publish scientific breakthroughs. Education, Social and Natural
Science, Culture and Communication are the means to a far more ambitious goal : to build peace in the minds of men.
Perry-Castañeda Library (Map Collection)
The collections of the University of Texas Libraries are the result of
more than one hundred years of continuing commitment by librarians,
faculty, students, and private donors to build one of the great library
collections of the world.
A Guide to the World's Languages: Volume I, Classification by Merritt Ruhlen. Publisher: Stanford University Press;
1 edition (Aug 1 1991) ISBN-10: 0804718946
Atlas des peuples du monde de Atlas Narodov Mira, published by Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к) de Moscou, 1964
(Bruk, S. I. and V. S. Apenchenko, eds. Glavnoe upravlenie geodezii i kartografii gosudarstvennogo geologicheskogo komiteta SSSR and
Institut etnografii im. H. H. Miklukho-Maklaia, Akademiia nauk SSSR.) 184 pages dont 112 en cartes polychromes. Certaines cartes ont plus de
100 symboles et jusqu'à 200 même (Les peuples de l'Afrique,
pp. 74-75) ; d'autres illustrent des répartitions jusqu'aux 5 kilomètres près (Les peuples du Caucase,
Les langues du monde by A. Meillet, M. Cohen (1924). Publisher: Slatkine Reprints, december 1997, ISBN 2051002541
Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th Edition, edited by Raymond G. Gordon, Jr., 2005, 1272 pp., ISBN 978-1-55671-159-6
The Atlas of Languages: The Origin and Development of Languages Throughout the World by Stephen Matthews, Maria Polinsky, Bernard Comrie. Publisher: Facts on File (December 1996). ISBN-10: 0816033889
And at least 100 people who have already
contacted me and made me change some details. Thanks to all of
Linguistic criteria and Frequently Asked Questions
Muturzikin.com receives a certain amount of Emails
and gives answers to Frequently Asked Questions.
-4- And finally to a village or a city where most of the people speak a distinct language.
Example: Alemán Coloniero, spoken in the
city of Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, is a dialect that belongs to the Low Alemannic
branch of German (See
We don't include on our maps
Example: The Hutterites, like the Amish and
Mennonites, speaking Hutterite German (Hutterisch) which is an Upper German
dialect of the Austro-Bavarian variety of the German language (See
- An large ethnic district within a particular city.
Example: A chinatown.
- Moribund or scattered linguistic communities.
Example: Basques-Argentines representing
3.6 million of the total population in Argentina speak Spanish language, few
speak Basque language. Welsh-Argentines settlers in Argentina speak Spanish and
about eight percent also speak Welsh and they are scattered through the country.
- Diverse immigrant or heritage-language speakers.
Example: Let’s take for example the city of
Calgary where I used to live. French language is spoken by 30 000 French
Canadians and other francophones, Chinese language is spoken by 100 000 people,
Vietnamese.... etc. If these linguistic groups are scattered through the city or
are located in a specific neighborhood, it’s impossible for me to collect
information about hundreds of languages from thousands cities.
My maps display the ethnic and linguistic complexities in some parts of the world
that are too often ignored or discarded by nationalists. Most people are conditioned
to think nationalistically without even necessarily being aware of it. Each language or isogloss
transcends geographical borders, where appropriate. I am committed to a different,
more enlightening approach to cartography. When I see
maps like this,
I become convinced that we don't respect indigenous languages or
acknowledge the uniqueness of each indigenous community. I seek to preserve the integrity of the area in which the language
or dialect is spoken, even where this crosses international borders.
« Linguistic maps always contain inaccuracies - after all, languages are living organisms »
- This is a very ambitious project and some mistakes are expected like
mislabeling, but please feel free to contact me and we will work on what you have to say. I am sure
I must have made minor mistakes in this solitary, monk-like task of mine so do let me know. However, please don't forget our linguistic criteria and
as with all other means of imparting information, linguistic cartography depends on good quality data.
4 : Why do you sometimes seem to overlook the principal language ?
Languages are carriers of value systems and vehicles of cultural expression
and they are a decisive factor in both group and individual identity... Over 50% of
the world’s 6000 languages are endangered. 96% of the world’s 6000
languages are spoken by 4% of the world’s population. 90% of the world’s
languages are not represented on the Internet, one language disappears on average
every two weeks and 80% of the African languages have no orthography.
much more complex than it appears at first sight. These are not the kind
of maps you are used to seeing simply because there are not that many of
them on the Internet. The usual language map only shows official
or most spoken languages and these end on the map where the border ends. These kinds of
maps are commonplace (See
but I am trying to do something different. As well defined above, I am showing minority languages
because I think that is also
a rational choice based on legitim linguistic criteria.
5 : The colors should show the language which is spoken
by the majority in a region but they don't. You also assume all members of a
particular ethnic group always speak that group's language which is not necessarily
You are right, these maps aren't concerned with the majority but with the rights
of minority languages to gain attention. They are not your reality but another,
parallel reality that you might prefer to ignore or discount. I am sorry but I do
care, even if there are only 10 speakers left. Some maps show a linguistic reality
that you might not have been taught in school
Why Sango which is the primary language spoken in the Central African Republic is not displayed on your maps?
Native languages or chief dialects have priority on vernacular languages, lingua franca, pidgin and creole languages.
Sango (also spelled Sangho) is a vehicular language, belonging to the Ngbandi language cluster (including Ngbandi and Yakoma), with many French words.
Some linguists, following William J. Samarin, classify it as a Ngbandi-based creole;
nethertheless Muturzikin.com have geolinguistic representations of pidgins and creoles.
7 : Is it possible for me to purchase a copy of your language map ?
I am afraid I don't make copies of my linguistic maps because there
is such little demand (about a dozen requests a year) that it is just
not worth it. Here is what I suggest you do instead:
First, fill out fully this Permission form specifying your purpose in
Then, I will give you access to a PNG format or any other one of your
preference (JPG, PDF. GIF, BMP) without Muturzikin.com in the
background. Portable Network Graphics (PNG) is a bitmapped image format that employs lossless data compression. Other popular graphics programs
which support the PNG format include Adobe Photoshop, Corel Photo-Paint, Corel Paint Shop Pro, The GIMP, GraphicConverter, Helicon Filter, Inkscape,
Pixel image editor, Paint.NET and Xara. Some programs bundled with popular operating systems, which support PNG include Microsoft's Paint and Apple's
iPhoto and Preview. You can then print it off on whatever size or kind of paper you wish at
whatever printing facilities you use (print shop or printer) but please let me know which format
you will be using.
8 : Is there any way to past the maps directly
into PowerPoint files for example, they seem to be impossible to copy to
a local file ?
may be used in reports, presentations, displays, and other uses as long
as they are not altered. They have "Copyrights" on them to remind users
that these are for private use and not for distribution to others,
either as printouts or as computer files, except as noted : You MAY
print or post copies of the PNG versions of these maps if the copyright
is not removed, and the graphic is not modified. Any other use like copy
to a local file, requires prior written permission from Muturzikin. Then, I will give
you access to a PNG format that you will directly include
into PowerPoint files. PowerPoint imports PNG files with their alpha channels intact, selections embedded in such alpha channels show up as transparent areas.
9 : Why do you
make a geolinguistic atlas with all titles in Basque language instead
of English ?
More than 90% of my
atlas is in English which has definitely been accepted as the world’s lingua franca
(language used by different peoples as a common
communicational code). Its use on the Internet and, generally, in every aspect related to new technologies, science and business is overwhelming.
But the Basque language may
easily become the main element of expression and identity for a specific people, such as in the
Basque case or for me. Castelao in his classical Sempre en Galiza
(1944) stated: “do not forget that if we are Galician is [because] of
the language ... language is not just a work of art in itself, but a
never-ending source of works of art”. From this perspective, the loss of
a language entails the loss of a specific culture, the disappearance of
its history and ways of interacting with the world. A Basque name in the title is my
signature because I am of Basque ancestry, my way of
interacting with you and a wink. I wish people would understand.
10 : I am
interested in including your maps on Flickr, could I reproduce them ?
afraid I refuse any reproduction of my linguistic maps on Flickr or any
other image hosting service. Flickr is an image and video hosting website, web services suite, and
online community platform. It stores the image onto its server, and shows
the individual different types of code to allow others to view that
image. Here is a ban list of hosting service (BayImg, CleVR, DeviantArt, Elftown, Elfwood, Flickr, Fotki, IconBuffet, ImageShack, Interartcenter, Ipernity, Kaltura, Kodak Gallery, MijnAlbum, Moobol, MorgueFile, Panoramio, Photobucket, Picasa,
Pikeo, PinoyCentric, Pixiv, ShareNow, Shutterfly, Snapfish, Stock.xchng, TinyPic, Webshots, Wikimedia Commons and Woophy).
I want people see my maps through my server only.
Transclusion may be a solution like
but IS NOT automatically authorized.
Otherwise, if you could generate a very small version of my work like
this example diplays, then it is possible under certain conditions
and requires prior written permission from Muturzikin
(no more than 10 versions by platform). So please do let me know.
11 : How do I copy a linguistic map for personal use ?
Any republication or commercial use of any original material (linguistic maps) in this website is expressly prohibited.
For scholarly research and educational use,
Any reproduction or employ of my linguistic maps for personal use is allowed without
permission. It's very simple, just follow these 3 easy steps. I made a tutorial about how to do it.
12 : I am
interested in including your maps on my blog, my facebook or my website. Could I reproduce them ?
Unfortunately, I don't allow any reproduction of my linguistic maps on any social network or any website. I want people see my maps through my server only. However, if you can generate a
very small version of my work like the kind displayed in this blog,
you may do so without my permission. You just have to link your version to the corresponding page of my website.
13 : Do you have a single linguistic map of the world as a whole or of each of the continents ?
No, unfortunately, this was a mistake that I made from the start. Except for Europe, I have no overall linguistic map. Every continent has countries with too many languages
to be drawn in the same format. So I have different maps in different formats for countries which border one another, which means they cannot be put together. However,
Steve Huffman Language Maps has done the kind of map you might be looking for.